In In Praise of Profanity, Michael Adams argues plausibly that the threshold for what counts as profane (or obscene, or vulgar, all related but not synonymous concepts) is vague and radically context-dependent. I can write “douche bag” out, for instance, ...
Man, that did not go as planned at all.
Remember 2008. President George W. Bush, who had planned to spend his presidency reforming education and overseeing a Texas-style economic renaissance on a national scale, had been for years mired in the ...
Sinners in the Hands of an Indifferent God
Editor’s note: This article first appeared on January 1, 2014.
The God of Abraham is enigmatic, paradoxical, capricious, or so He must always seem to us, our understanding being imperfect, the limitations of our minds severe and unnegotiable. On Christmas, we ...
Does Trump Grasp the Reality of ‘Radical Islam’?
It was the key national-security debate of the 2016 election. Donald Trump won the election, in no small part, because he appeared to be on the right side of it. Appeared is used advisedly: Trump was at least in the general ...
A New Year’s Request for the Left
Last winter, when the Republican presidential primary was in full swing, I had a late-night dinner with a campus minister who was working with students at an Ivy League school. Describing the college climate, he said, “Everything’s about race ...
Jack Fowler has been badgering me to write a fundraising appeal around our planned re-design, and I was in the midst of formulating one when I started looking through the comments from all our donors so far.
Yes, we actually ...
16 Most Ridiculously PC Moments on College Campuses in 2016
Everyone always talks about “political correctness on college campuses” these days, but is it really that bad? Yes. Yes, it is. And if you don’t believe me, here, in no particular order, are the 16 most ridiculously PC moments on ...
President-elect Donald J. Trump “doesn’t know much,” former President Bill Clinton claimed last week. “One thing he does know is how to get angry white men to vote for him.”
Clinton’s insult may be the highest-level Democratic dismissal ...
Before the Black Lives Matter craze exacerbated contemporary attitudes about race and black social continuity, playwright August Wilson’s Fences articulated a black tribal viewpoint of the ambition, grievance, and assorted religious, sexual, and political beliefs borne by African American ...
Americans Are No Longer on the Move
Americans see themselves as people on the move. When the going gets tough or when opportunity beckons, we get up and go. We move around a lot.
Actually, we don’t — or don’t nearly so much as we used ...
GW’s Decision to Ditch U.S. History Exemplifies How Elite Schools Fail Their Students
The George Washington University is named for:
a) America’s first president
b) the president of the 1787 Constitutional Convention
c) the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army
d) all of the above
If you struggled to answer that question, you may ...
Thomas Becket and Religious Freedom in the Twelfth Century — and in the 21st
One of the nice things about joining the Catholic Church later in life, as I did, is that you get to choose your own patron saint instead of having one thrust upon you at birth by your parents, who hardly ...
2016 Books: A President Leaves, but the Reading Continues
The year 2016 was a good one for books by men named Yuval. Over the past year, I read two, and both were excellent. The first Yuval is Yuval Levin, justifiably well known to NR readers. His Fractured Republic deserves the ...
How Trump Can Stop Erdoğan from Playing the United States
Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan has big ambitions. He wants to become an Imam Ataturk, a leader who replaces Turkey’s national secularism with autocratic political Islam.
But this week, by claiming the United States supports ISIS, Erdogan crossed a ...
Israel would seem to be in a disastrous position, given the inevitable nuclear capabilities of Iran and the recent deterioration of its relationship with the United States, its former patron and continued financial benefactor.
Immediately upon entering office, President Obama ...
Cinnabon's Carrie Fisher Tweet Was Okay, Jokes about Death Are Okay
Apparently, we have reached the point where actual, real-life, grown-up adults are spending their Wednesdays mad at a cinnamon-roll company’s Twitter account.
In case you haven’t heard, America’s favorite source of sugary-stomach-cement, Cinnabon, posted a tweet saying “...
A Stupid Anti-Israel Policy
Secretary of State John Kerry used the word “conscience” over and over again as he attempted to explain and justify the Obama administration’s decision not to veto a one-sided U.N. Security Council resolution condemning Israel. He added that ...
Kerry to Israel: A State Cannot Be Both Jewish and Democratic
Our ineffable secretary of state, John Kerry, delivered another parting shot at Israel today, offering the Obama administration’s “vision” for a two-state solution for Israel and Palestine. There are many things to be said about it — not least that ...
Carrie Fisher’s Princess Leia, a Woman in Full
After Carrie Fisher’s death, Steve Martin tweeted a tribute that expressed the sentiments of every one of my buddies from childhood: “When I was a young man, Carrie Fisher was the most beautiful creature I had ever seen. She ...
Advocacy for free trade can sometimes be dogmatic and utopian. It can overstate the contribution that reducing trade barriers makes to the spread of peace and democracy. It can ignore the harm that liberalized trade does to particular workers, industries, ...
Does a Never Trumper Need to Be Forgiven?
‘I forgive you.”
I’ve lost count of how many people have told me that since Election Day. Of course, the number pales in comparison with the legions who’ve told me I was “wrong about everything” this year and ...
Trade-Policy Reform, Because the Real World Is More Complicated than Ideology
All of a sudden, trade is back on the agenda. You may have heard something about that. You may have heard that President-elect Donald Trump said a thing or two about it on the campaign trail. At first observers either ...
Thank You, Professor Sowell
I first read Thomas Sowell in college — no thanks to my college.
At the majority of America’s institutions of “higher learning,” reading Thomas Sowell was a subversive act in the early 1990s when I was a student. It remains ...
The Season of Liberal Panic
A presidential victory by a candidate you detest isn’t supposed to be the end of the world — or the end of your world.
Yet since November, the panicked reaction from progressives seems to be intensifying instead of passing. Over ...
Time to Get Tough on Turkey
Turkey has now been a candidate for membership in the European Union longer than any other country in the history of the European integration process. It submitted its application to the European Economic Community, the EU’s predecessor, in 1987. Twelve ...
Even the best things come to an end. After enjoying a quarter of a century of writing this column for Creators Syndicate, I have decided to stop. Age 86 is well past the usual retirement age, so the question is not ...
Whole Foods’ ‘Cultural Appropriation’ of the Chopped-Cheese Sandwich
In 2016, the nation lost its mind over many things: men in dresses, presidential candidates, and, not least, terrible sandwiches.
For the sake of our sanity, let’s talk about the sandwiches.
There is, in the parts of New York City ...
Why Is the Government Telling Us How to Raise Our Kids?
The headline says it all: “Proposed Bill Would Expand Parents’ Rights, but Critics Say It Goes Too Far.” What exactly is too far when it comes to parents’ rights? In the case of this story from Fort Worth, Texas, it ...
Scrap the Iran Nuclear Deal
As the Obama presidency fades from the scene, its most consequential and catastrophic legacy in foreign affairs is its Iran policy. Iran’s clerical leaders today possess a nuclear infrastructure that is gradually expanding and is blessed by the international ...
‘Merry Christmas’ — Say It Loud and Proud, Because of What It Means
‘We’re going to start saying Merry Christmas again,” President-elect Donald Trump said at a thank-you rally in Michigan on December 9, before tweeting the same sentiment to his 17.5 million followers. Of all the post-election messages from Trump, his Merry Christmas “...
The Underestimated Value of ‘Happy Holidays’
‘Happy holy days,” we hear at Christmas, if we have ears to hear. Do we?
If the sound of “Happy holidays!” or the sight of that salute in a store window upsets you, consider the magi. No one can accuse ...
Christmas and Living beyond Fear
Thanks to the crèche, introduced to Western Christendom by Saint Francis of Assisi in 1223, the Christmas story has become seamless: a unified tale with a single cast of characters, from Mary, Joseph, and the infant savior, wrapped in swaddling ...
Obama’s Betrayal of Israel Is a Black Day for American Diplomacy
Adding a final shameful chapter to a foreign-policy record that already runneth over with them, Barack Obama on Friday abandoned America’s commitment to Israel’s security, and to the vindication of democracy over sharia-supremacist aggression. In an act of ...
The Return of ‘Street Corner Conservatism’
Richard Nixon was plotting his 1968 presidential campaign when he received a letter from a high-school English teacher in Pennsylvania. The correspondent, a young man named William F. Gavin, wasn’t certain Nixon would run. But he sure wanted him to. “...
Obama’s Shameful Parting Shot at Israel
In a parting, spiteful shot at Israel, the Obama administration permitted a U.N. Security Council resolution to pass that seeks to permanently change the international legal status of so-called Israeli “settlements” in Jerusalem and the disputed West Bank. Departing ...
Patriots Day Rises to the Occasion
Peter Berg’s Patriots Day, about the April 15, 2013, Boston Marathon bombing, combines action-movie flash with commemorative-movie solemnity. Surprisingly, the competing genres even each other out: Neither insultingly exploitative nor piously dignified, it is a nearly ideal example of pop-art historical ...
Under Obama, a Disaster for the Democrats
Four faithless electors ditched Hillary Clinton in the Electoral College on Monday, double the number who dumped Donald J. Trump. For Democrats, this was yet another collapsed floor atop the pile of smoldering rubble beneath which they have been entombed ...
Manners, Even in the Age of Trump
There is a scene in Dune in which an old witch threatens a young nobleman with a device “that only kills animals.” He takes offense: “Are you suggesting the duke’s son might be an animal?” She wryly replies: “Let ...
The Conventional Threat to Trump
Donald Trump was supposed to take over the Republican party, but the question going forward will be whether the Republican party takes over him.
So far the early legislative agenda of Republicans after the Trump revolution is shaping up to ...
How Charlie Sykes Helped Turn Wisconsin Red
On December 19, radio host Charlie Sykes completed his last broadcast for WTMJ in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. His last hours on the air were adorned with encomia from some of the leading figures his show had helped to incubate: Reince Preibus, Scott ...
Why Journalists Always Tap the Brakes on Terrorism Stories
Here’s a paradox for you. Whenever there’s a terrorist attack, the immediate response from government officials and the media is: “Let’s not jump to conclusions.” Yet when there are breaking reports that Muslim or Arab Americans were ...
Children Don’t Exist to Advance Your Politics
Polly Dunning has managed to compose perhaps the creepiest sentence ever written: “By having sons, we do feminism a great service.”
The line appears in Wednesday’s Sydney Morning Herald, in a piece entitled “Having a Son Went from a ...
When Entertainment Reporters Get Political
If you think liberal media bias is strictly an issue for the New York Times and the Washington Post, you haven’t looked at your average entertainment site lately.
Nearly every major Hollywood news site leans left. It has been ...
German Lesson: Islamist Enclaves Breed Jihadism
German investigators have named a Tunisian refugee, Anis Amri, as the jihadist whom they suspect carried out Tuesday’s mass-murder attack. Amri is believed to be the man who drove a truck through a Christmas festival in Berlin, killing twelve ...
The Trump Nail in the Media Coffin
President-elect Donald Trump probably will not often communicate with the nation via traditional press conferences. Nor will Trump likely field many questions from New York/Washington journalists.
What we know as “the media” never imagined a Trump victory. It has ...
Grad Student Association Closes Cafe over Joke Job Posting That Said ‘Need a New Slave’
The Graduate Students’ Association at Wilfrid Laurier University in Ontario shut down the school’s Veritas Cafe after its operator posted a job listing that jokingly stated it was looking to hire “a new slave.”
“I need a new slave (...
CNN Fans More Hatred of Cops, in Touting Flawed Study
CNN is making a desperate pitch to further enflame the ideological war on cops while it still has a sympathetic ear in the White House. The CNN website is promoting a laughably incomplete study of police use of fatal force ...
USDA Demands Holiday Snacks (and Parents) Be Removed from Schools
Starting next year, bringing a dozen homemade cupcakes to your child’s classroom to celebrate his or her birthday will be tantamount to lighting up a cigarette on the blacktop. Candy canes and gingerbread men people will be verboten during ...
In Defense of Farmers, Hunters, and Meat-Eaters
I am a monster, and so are millions of Americans who hunt, fish, and raise livestock. At least that’s the argument by Matthew Scully, a former literary editor of National Review, who took to these pages to present the ...
Honest Politicians Finish Last
On February 1, 2016, Senator Ted Cruz (R., Texas) won the Iowa caucuses. That came as a bit of a shock to the political establishment, given that Cruz had not only touched the third rail of Iowa politics, he had grabbed it ...
Travel Is So Much Better Than It Was
The world in 2016 was for many an unsettling and even dangerous one given terrorist attacks and conflict in the Middle East. But as I returned from a trip visiting Europe last week, it struck me that we have much to ...
Viewing 2016 in retrospect — doing so is unpleasant, but less so than was living through it — the year resembles a china shop after a visit from an especially maladroit bull. Because a law says, “The state of California may not sell ...
A friend of mine treated himself to a new revolver for Hannukah, a Smith & Wesson .44 Magnum. He and I took it to the range a few days ago to break it in. For the uninitiated, the S&W .44 Magnum is ...
This Is the Moment for an Israeli Victory
The U.S.-sponsored Israeli–Palestinian “peace process” began in December 1988, when Palestinian Liberation Organization leader Yasir Arafat met American conditions and “accepted United Nations Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, recognized Israel’s right to exist and renounced terrorism” (actually, given ...
Obama's Belated Response to Russian Aggression
With 20 days left in his second term, Barack Obama has finally decided to get tougher on Russia. On Thursday, the president expelled 35 Russian intelligence operatives from the country; imposed sanctions on two Russian intelligence agencies — the GRU and FSB — and ...
2016: The Year Liberal Ideas Failed
Hillary Clinton lost because she took her eyes off the Rust Belt and foolishly tried to “expand the map” into Arizona and Georgia. Clinton lost because she was unlikable and dishonest. Clinton lost because she ran against Donald Trump rather ...
'Safe Transfer Act' Would Brand Transcripts of Students Ensnared in Campus Sex-Crimes Tribunals
No longer content to deny due process to university students facing often unsubstantiated or false accusations of sexual harassment and assault, activists now aim to destroy any hope for them to transfer to other colleges and universities. In Congress on ...
The Obama ‘Settlements’ Crisis
The crisis in U.S.–Israeli relations that the Obama administration caused this month, in its waning days, has its roots in a huge and foolish error that President Obama made on coming to office in 2009.
Way back in late 2000, ...
Defund the United Nations
We’ve come a long way from Daniel Patrick Moynihan excoriating the U.N.’s 1975 “Zionism is racism” resolution in one of the finer exhibits of righteous indignation in the history of American speechifying.
The Obama administration acceded to — and, ...
Obama’s Late Hit on Israel
“When the chips are down, I have Israel’s back.”
— Barack Obama, AIPAC conference, March 4, 2012
The audience — overwhelmingly Jewish, passionately pro-Israel, and supremely gullible — applauded wildly. Four years later — his last election behind him, with a month to go in ...
Debbie Reynolds’s Broadway Debut
Editor’s Note: This piece first appeared in the April 27, 1973, issue of National Review under the headline “Irene, Attila, and We.” We are reprinting it to mark Debbie Reynolds’s passing on December 28, 2016.
Garry Wills once managed to write a ...
A Ukrainian Christmas . . .
Whether it’s celebrated according to the Gregorian or the Julian calendar, Christmastide in Ukraine this season might seem to be one in which the bad news is all the news there is. Russian aggression, low-key but lethal, continues in ...
Trump Should Have a Celebrity-Free Inauguration
Donald Trump is having a hard time lining up stars to perform at his inauguration.
Is anyone shocked?
Hollywood threw all its support to then-Senator Barack Obama eight years ago. This time around, it supported Hillary. It became commonplace to ...
The Last Days of Barack Obama
Rock stars, the heroes who stormed the beaches at Normandy, or Jesus Christ Himself — it doesn’t matter who you are next to the president.
For the past year, there have been cringe-inducing headlines reminding us that x, y, or ...
Protectionism’s Enduring Costs
It is axiomatic that if someone is sufficiently eager to disbelieve something, there is no Everest of evidence too large to be ignored. This explains today’s revival of protectionism, which is a plan to make America great again by ...
John Kerry’s Fitting Ending
John Kerry ends his long career in politics the same way he began it: disgracefully.
Kerry debuted on the national stage in 1971 by telling the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the American public that U.S. servicemen in Vietnam “raped, ...
John Kerry's Indefensible Swipe at Israel
This morning John Kerry issued a long, meandering statement that served mainly to put an exclamation point on a failed foreign policy, one that still — after eight dreadful years — evinces a willful refusal to see the evident truths of the ...
American Colleges Are Approaching a Constitutional Crisis
Intent on establishing progressive utopias, universities and federal bureaucrats are together systematically violating the constitutional rights of students and professors. The stories are legion, the legal standards are unconscionable, and it’s past time for other branches of American government ...
Buck up, you pansies: 2016 was the best year in human history, and 2017 almost certainly will be better.
Oh, I know, the presidential election was a fiasco, but the republic will endure. And it was a tough year for beloved celebrities: ...
Yes, 2016 Was Awful — but Not Because of the Election
‘Mom, Luigi died.”
Those crushing words came from my daughter Victoria. Her friend Luigi died on May 28 of cancer. He was 16.
A big, quiet kid, Luigi was a kind soul liked by everyone. He was diagnosed his freshman year at ...
President Obama’s Two Hanukkah Messages
President Obama blessed the Jewish people with two Hanukkah messages this year: one in a statement in advance of his annual Hanukkah party on Friday, and one at the United Nations.
At the U.N., Obama abstained, leaving Israel to ...
Obama Despises Israel Because He Despises the West
Barack Obama has done his best for nearly eight years to undermine the state of Israel. He’s signed a treaty that enshrines an Iranian path to a nuclear weapon while funding their global terrorist activities to the tune of ...
How the Obama Administration Facilitated Palestinian Violence
Last week the Obama administration defied both history and international law to grant Palestinian terrorists a grand victory. At a stroke, the administration purported to declare any Israeli claim to any portion of the West Bank — including the Western Wall — ...
The Ancient Foreign Policy
For the last eight years, Barack Obama, Hillary Clinton, John Kerry, Samantha Power, Ben Rhodes, and Susan Rice have sought to rewrite the traditional approach to foreign policy. In various ways, they have warned us about the dangers that a ...
Random Thoughts, Looking Back
Editor’s Note: Thomas Sowell is retiring from writing his weekly syndicated column. This is his final column.
Any honest man, looking back on a very long life, must admit — even if only to himself — being a relic of a ...
Trump Puts Global-Warming Action and Entitlement Reform on Ice
It’s been a tough year for political elites, here and around the world, what with the passage of Brexit in June in Britain, the repudiation of Colombia’s Nobel Peace Prize recipient in the October FARC referendum, and the ...
Berlin Truck Massacre Shows the Soundness of Trump’s Views on Illegal-Alien Criminals
Donald Trump was asked on Wednesday if the Christmas-market truck massacre in Berlin had caused him to reevaluate his various proposals regarding immigration from terror-spawning regions. His answer sent the liberal media into another nervous breakdown: “I’ve been proven ...
The Gifts We Too Often Fail to Give
‘Every child, and most wives, have experienced the gift obviously purchased at the airport, in spastic response to the sudden memory of a birthday or an anniversary,” William F. Buckley wrote in a column for Playboy magazine on “What we ...
Trump’s Superman Style of Politics
The strange thing about bailouts, such as the one Donald Trump and Mike Pence just organized for the Carrier air-conditioner company, is that they are detested in theory but relatively popular in practice, at least when they are put together ...
Baby, Let's Not Ruin Everything
A Christmas standard since the 1940s, “Baby, It’s Cold Outside” is an uncommonly catchy and witty song that is now — incredibly enough — controversial.
Anyone who has turned on the radio, walked in a shopping mall, or watched a Christmas ...
For We Have Seen His Star
In his great meditation on the crucifixion, Death on a Friday Afternoon, Father Richard John Neuhaus cautions us against passing too quickly over the darkest day in the Church’s calendar in our rush to the most joyful one. But ...
How Russia Will Shape the 2018 Midterm Elections
A month and a half after the presidential election, Democrats are obsessed with the idea that they didn’t really lose: The election was stolen from them by Russian hackers, by the FBI, and by the Electoral College.
This week, ...
Does Anyone Besides Jeff Sessions Defend Today’s Civil-Forfeiture Practices?
“The thing that is in Room 101 is the worst thing in the world. . . . The worst thing in the world varies from individual to individual.”— George Orwell, 1984
Philadelphia — For Christos and Markela Sourovelis, for whom the worst thing was losing their ...
The Trump Transition Is Transcendent, but the Economy Needs Attention Now
President-elect Donald Trump’s transition continues to go smoothly. Better than smoothly. Confidently. More than confidently. Transcendently.
And to top it all off, the Dow is up 9 percent since the election, while economic-sensitive small-caps have jumped nearly 16 percent. These are ...
The D.C. Court of Appeals Undermines the First Amendment
Yesterday, the D.C Court of Appeals issued its decision in Michael Mann’s defamation case against us and the Competitive Enterprise Institute. The court dismissed Mann’s claims for intentional infliction of emotional distress, and also dismissed his claims ...
Hollywood’s Gun-Control Dud
Miss Sloane, a highly anticipated movie demonizing the NRA and calling for gun control, has bombed. The movie succeeded only in emphasizing the top-down nature of the gun-control campaign and how little intensity there is for more regulations.
The movie ...
div style=”float:right; width:200px; height:220px; background-color:#FFF; margin-left:50px; background-image:url(http://c5.nrostatic.com/sites/default/files/badge_NR_free-article_2.jpg); background-repeat:no-repeat; background-position:left;” class=”off-phones”>
There is, thankfully, less to President-elect Donald Trump’s ...
Memo to the New York Times: Definitions of ‘Fake News’ Are Subjective
In 2007, the New York Times editorial board railed against Verizon for preventing an abortion-rights group from sending mass text messages. It warned against “the potential threat to free speech . . . as communications migrate from old-fashioned telephone lines, TV broadcasts and printing ...
Stop Partisan Cheerleading, and More Christmastime Advice
Now that the 538 electors have voted — and, with only the most minor of exceptions, for the expected candidates — we can marvel at how such a huge difference in public policies can be made by just a few votes, the 77,744 votes ...
With His Arctic-Drilling Ban, Obama Continues His Historic Abuse of Power
While the Left panics over President-elect Donald Trump and the erosion of democratic norms, President Barack Obama went ahead and issued another decree without any regard for the nation’s legislative process.
It’s nothing new. Obama’s latest executive ...
The Fall of Aleppo and Obama’s Shameful Legacy
The fall of Aleppo just weeks before Barack Obama leaves office is a fitting stamp on his Middle East policy of retreat and withdrawal. The pitiable pictures from the devastated city showed the true cost of Obama’s abdication. For ...
What Would It Take for Progressives to Reject Black Lives Matter?
If Black Lives Matter were conservative, it would already be one of the most discredited and despised movements in American history. Can you imagine the elite Left’s reaction to a conservative movement built on a founding lie that has ...
Setting the Record Straight on Scott Pruitt
The ink had not dried on Scott Pruitt’s nomination to head the EPA before many in the media labeled him a “climate denier.” Like most cases of slander, this one rested on the flimsiest of reeds — lines from an ...
Barack Obama, utilizing the hitherto unknown “No-Backsies!” provision of Article II, has unilaterally declared an “indefinite” ban on oil exploration in certain parts of the Atlantic and Arctic.
The president is relying on a novel — and imaginary, and dishonest — interpretation ...
General Mattis’s Challenge
“To change anything in the Navy is like punching a feather bed. You punch it with your right and you punch it with your left until you are finally exhausted, and then you find the damn bed just as it ...
Historic Opportunity for Trump
The year ends amid the most astonishing display of sour grapes, mass embarrassment, and unspontaneous amnesia in living memory of U.S. presidential elections. The national media, sleepwalking toward the inauguration they did everything possible to prevent, having denied at ...
Trump Is Already Ditching His Movement
We are one month from inauguration day, and it looks like the Donald Trump revolution is already almost over. In its place is a globalist establishment led by a rogue tweeter. Doubt me? Let’s review the great causes that ...
Michelle Obama’s Christmas Lump of Coal
Just what we all need to ring in the Christmas season: un-merry millionaire Michelle Obama bellyaching about the burdens and sacrifices of public life with billionaire Oprah Winfrey.
“There’s nowhere in the world I can go and sit and ...
The Tragic Downfall of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
On October 11, 2016, in PHH Corp. v. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, a three-judge panel of the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals found the CFPB’s structure unconstitutional and “fixed” it by empowering the president to remove the agency’s director ...
Omar Mateen murdered 49 people in an Orlando nightclub, and Mark Zuckerberg did not.
But Omar Mateen was an Islamic jihadist who now is as dead as fried chicken, while Mark Zuckerberg is a Silicon Valley billionaire who is very much ...