Over the last seven decades, 115 veterans of World War II have served in the United States Senate. This week, the last of them, Frank Lautenberg (D., N.J.), died.
Two World War II veterans still serve in the House — Ralph Hall (R., Texas), who was a Navy pilot, and John Dingell (D., Mich.), who joined the Army at 18 and was scheduled to take part in the planned invasion of Japan.
There aren’t likely to be any more members of what Tom Brokaw labeled “the Greatest Generation” serving in Congress. All surviving World War II veterans (except a few who lied about their age) are at least 85 years old.
In the 78 years since World War II ended, veterans of the conflict have played an outsized role in American politics — more than veterans of any other conflict since the Civil War.
Not much notice was paid when the last Spanish–American War veteran in Congress, Barratt O’Hara, died in 1969.
Nor was much attention directed at the retirement from Congress in the 1970s of the last two World War I veterans — Senator Mike Mansfield (D., Mont.), who lied about his age to enlist, and Senator John Sparkman (D., Ala.), who served in the Student Army Training Corps.
In contrast, World War II veterans made a big splash in politics, starting shortly after the war ended. Dozens of young veterans were elected to Congress in 1946, including future presidents John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon.
The two had offices near each other and, as Chris Matthews chronicled in his 1996 book Kennedy and Nixon, were on friendly terms until they became political rivals.
When they ran for president in 1960, they were both in their 40s — a vivid contrast with the much older presidents of the previous two decades.
From Kennedy’s victory that year through George H. W. Bush’s defeat in 1992, a period of 32 years, every president had served in the military during World War II, although Lyndon Johnson’s service was brief and Jimmy Carter did not graduate from the Naval Academy until after the war was over.
Many other members of the Greatest Generation entered politics early and made a mark. Lloyd Bentsen, first elected to Congress in 1948, and George McGovern, first elected in 1956, were both bomber pilots — an extremely hazardous duty.
Three future senators — Philip Hart (D., Mich.), Daniel Inouye (D., Hawaii), and Bob Dole (R., Kan.) — first met in a rehabilitation center in Battle Creek, Mich., recovering from serious wounds.
More than 400,000 American servicemen died in World War II — 100 times the American death toll in Iraq — and the lives of millions were disrupted. But wartime service also opened up opportunities for many.
One of them was Frank Lautenberg. His prospects seemed dim. His father died when he was a teenager, and his mother ran a sandwich shop. But thanks to the G.I. Bill of Rights, he was able to attend Columbia University.
Most big corporations in those days did not hire Jews for management positions. But Lautenberg was able to get in on the ground floor of a startup company called Automatic Payrolls, Inc.
It filled a niche created by the wartime institution of income-tax withholding. Businesses needed someone to do the paperwork, and Lautenberg was hired as a salesman by the firm’s founders.
Soon he became head of the renamed Automatic Data Processing (ADP), and under his leadership it processed paychecks for about 10 percent of the national workforce. With the fortune he made, Lautenberg was able to pay for his first Senate campaign in 1982.