Ever since the Obama administration’s rollout of its space policy two and a half years ago, conventional ideological wisdom has been turned on its head. An administration that had seemed eager to increase government involvement in everything from auto companies to health care proposed a more competitive, privatized approach to spaceflight, and people claiming to be conservatives blasted it, demanding that the traditional (and failing) NASA monopoly continue. Jim Muncy, a former aide on space policy to California congressman Dana Rohrabacher (R.), put it cleverly: “Democrats don’t think that capitalism works within the atmosphere, and Republicans apparently don’t think it works above it.”
How did this happen? The resistance suggests three primary motives: visceral distaste for anything that emanates from this White House; nostalgia for the “good old days,” when America had big goals and really big rockets and unlimited budgets; and, in the case of many politicians, pure rent-seeking for their states and districts.
Those guarding their pork held congressional hearings in which Apollo-era astronauts including Neil Armstrong and Gene Cernan — the first and the last man to walk on the moon, respectively — expressed skepticism about companies that are privately developing space vehicles, such as Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX). These companies were, in Alabama senator Richard Shelby’s words, “hobbyists in a garage” who, according to Cernan, “didn’t know what they didn’t know.” (Who does?) Some Apollo-era types, among them Neil’s crewmate Buzz Aldrin and former NASA flight director Chris Kraft, disagreed, but they weren’t called to testify, and the critics ignored the fact that the companies proposing to privately develop new systems included Boeing, which has been involved in the production of every manned-spaceflight system in the past half century. Companies that have won government contracts were even compared to Solyndra, but there is no resemblance. There are no loan guarantees, and the companies are paid a fixed fee only when they pass milestones specified in their contracts. There has also been no obvious political influence: The contract under which SpaceX was compensated for a recent successful flight was awarded in the Bush administration, and Boeing — which has just won new funding from NASA (of which more below) — is not a prominent Obama supporter.
In addition to holding hearings, Congress took legislative action to resurrect the canceled Bush-era Constellation program, which was ostensibly designed to return men to the moon. On the recommendation of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board “not to mix crew and cargo,” the project had called for an Ares I “crew-launch system” (a rocket to carry astronauts into low Earth orbit) and an Ares V “heavy-lift vehicle” (one capable of carrying at least 50,000 kilograms of cargo). Constellation also included the Orion, a modern equivalent of the Apollo capsule and service module that delivered Armstrong and his crew to the moon in 1969. In the fall of 2010, Congress demanded that NASA reinstate Orion. It also dreamed up and demanded from NASA a new rocket called the Space Launch System (SLS), an Ares V–like heavy-lift vehicle. Although NASA studies have deemed the SLS unnecessary for space exploration, it is politically expedient: It would preserve part of the Shuttle workforce in Florida, Alabama, Utah, and other states with congressmen on the space committees.
Alliant Techsystems (ATK), the Utah-based supplier of the Shuttle’s solid rocket boosters, which are now intended for use in the SLS, tried to breathe new life into Ares I with a crew-launch system named the Liberty. Liberty failed to receive funding from NASA in previous rounds of the program, but ATK had reportedly continued its development with its own funds. Like Ares I, Liberty employs a five-segment solid rocket booster for the first stage, while the second stage uses a modified first-stage of the Ariane rocket, produced by the European company Astrium. Lockheed Martin will supply the crew capsule, using a stripped-down version of Orion (for which it is NASA’s contractor). With Orion reinstated and the SLS taking the place of the Ares V, the completion of Liberty would have meant the effective restoration of the entire Constellation program.