Religious freedom is in global crisis and the problem is worsening, according to a report released by the Pew Research Center on September 20.
Outside the West, restrictions on religious actors and their ideas are severe and growing. Millions of people are subject to violent religious persecution, including torture, rape, murder, unjust imprisonment, or execution.
Most of the victims are members of religious minorities. But reformers within majority religious communities are also vulnerable. Especially in Muslim-majority countries, laws and public attitudes that encourage violent reactions against blasphemy, apostasy, and defamation are increasingly discouraging voices of reform. In the West, the belief that religious liberty is essential to individual and social flourishing is eroding. In Western Europe, the French model appears to have triumphed, as religious ideas and actors are driven from public life. Throughout the West, “religious liberty” is shrinking to become a thin and impoverished “private” right — the right to believe or not and, if one believes, to worship and practice in private.
In the United States, the understanding of religion as “the first freedom” is under attack by those who view it as a threat to competing priorities. For an increasing number of Americans, it is a claim of privilege that must be balanced against many similar claims, each of which should be given equal weight. In America, religious liberty is at risk of becoming the fifth freedom, or the tenth freedom, or merely special pleading by religious people.
The Pew Reports
Pew has released religious-freedom reports in 2009, 2011, and 2012. They catalogue government restrictions on and social hostilities toward religion in every country in the world. Taken together, they show how religious freedom has deteriorated in the period 2006–10. Note that this time frame does not include the so-called Arab Spring or, here at home, the Obama administration’s HHS contraception mandate, for example, or its arguments in Hosanna-Tabor v. EEOC.
The global picture is grim. In 2010, 75 percent of the world’s population, up from 70 percent in 2006, lived in countries where religious freedom was rated as either highly restricted or very highly restricted. Most of them lived in about 73 countries, or 37 percent of the countries in the world, up from 29 percent in 2006. Of those 73 countries, most either are Muslim-majority, have Communist governments (e.g., China, North Korea, Vietnam, and Cuba), or are large non-Muslim-majority countries such as India, Burma, and Russia.
The problem is worsening, and at an alarming rate. Between 2009 and 2010, government restrictions on and social hostilities toward religion increased in all five regions of the world.
Most of the nations where religious freedom deteriorated were Muslim-majority states such as Egypt and Libya before the Arab Spring. It will be interesting to see how the new Egypt and Libya fare in future Pew reports. Conservatives who pine for the good old days of Hosni Mubarak and his authoritarian reign should take note of the price of the “stability” that regime imparted. Just months before the overthrow of Mubarak, Egypt was rated the worst country in the world with respect to government restrictions on religion, and “very high” in the category of social hostilities toward it.
But there is little room for Western complacency. While Western nations do not suffer the degree of violent persecution we see elsewhere, the Pew reports give ample reason for concern. In the 2011 report, of the five major regions of the world, the one with the highest percentage of countries where social hostilities toward religion were rising was Europe.