I thank Cliff and Stanley for the kind words. While I’m very sympathetic to Cliff’s point about the Saudis, I do think today’s Pakistan is the natural result of yesterday’s. Benazir Bhutto’s father, President Zulfiquar Ali Bhutto, was ousted and executed by a military coup led by General Mohammed Zia ul-Haq. Haq was a fundamentalist, and he promoted like-minded people in the military and the intelligence service. It is not for nothing that they were closely aligned with Hekmatyar, who was Pakistan’s guy in the mujahideen and who got $600M or so of the $3B with which the CIA funded the mujahideen — funds that were matched, dollar-for-dollar by those selfsame Saudis. What Cliff saw in Pakistan in the 80s was tamer than what exists today, but that’s because today we are reaping what was sown back then.