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Tora Bora Revisited


When we were attacked on 9/11, we had a limited number of special forces. We had no forward bases in or around Afghanistan. We eventually arranged for some bases, but they couldn’t handle significant numbers of troops. And much of our war effort involved massive bombing and air strikes. We had little familiarity with the country’s geography, for which we had no choice but to rely on the Northern Alliance and Pakistanis. Moreover, we needed to occupy and secure key terrain we had conquered with limited ground forces. Exactly what additional forces were we going to send into the mountains of Tora Bora? Where were they going to come from and how were they going to get there? These were among the real issues Tommy Franks faced on the ground.