NRO Slideshows

Meme Watch: Wendy Davis

Recent revelations that Texas politician and pro-abortion celebrity Wendy Davis fudged parts of her biography drew fire from critics who lambasted both Davis and the mainstream media for failing to dig into her past until now. Here’s a look at some Twitter commentary, illustrated by NR.
Uploaded: Jan. 21, 2014


WWI: Technology of War
Sep. 2, 2014
THE “GREAT WAR”: All wars push technological innovation as both sides seek an advantage in offensive or defensive systems and react to each other’s developments. WWI saw the introduction of numerous new implements of war, the refinement of others, and the use of old tools on a vast new scale. Here’s a look.
MACHINE GUN: The modern machine gun took a horrific toll on attacking infantry as commanders still relied on frontal assaults to take enemy positions. On battlefields across the war, the machine gun and artillery barrages pushed troops into trenches. Pictured, German machine guns man a position on the Vistula River, 1916. (AP)
British soldiers mount motorcycles with armored sidecars equipped with machine guns, 1918. (National Library of Scotland)
A lower-tech approach: A dog pulling a machine gun for British troops. (National Library of France)
Another way to make machine guns mobile: German soldiers pose with a custom-built horse mount for a Russian Maxim M1910 machine gun.
TANKS: The stalemate in the trenches of the Western Front pushed the development of armored “landslips,” the precursors of the modern tank. Pictured, American troops ride French Renault FT-17 tanks near Argonne, France. (NARA)
Though tank warfare would be a major component of the blitzkrieg campaigns of WWII, Germany lagged well behind Britain and France in developing their own tanks in WWI. Pictured, a German A7V tank, fewer than 100 of which were produced. (National Archives)
Not all tank designs made it into battle. This Hold gas-electric tank was an experimental design developed in the U.S. that was deemed too heavy and hard to maneuver and did not go beyond the prototype stage. (AP)
Other vehicles were equipped with armor plating to guard against machine gun fire. Pictured, German officers stand with an armored car in Ukraine, 1918. (SMU Library)
SUBMARINES: Submarines played a frightening new role in the war, attacking supply ships and combat vessels around the world. The sinking of the RMS Lusitania in May, 1915, with the loss of 1,200 souls onboard, would prove a turning point for America’s intervention in the conflict. Pictured, the German u-boat UB-148. (National Archives)
AIRCRAFT CARRIERS: Though they came too late in the war to make much impact, the retrofitting of landing decks and launch catapults onto ships pointed the way to the future of naval warfare. Pictured, a Curtis Model AB-2 airplane takes off from a catapult on the deck of USS North Carolina. (U.S. Navy)
BARBED WIRE: A relatively recent invention at the time, first seen in the Spanish-American War, barbed wire was a simple, mass-produceable defensive tool made the sprawling trenches of the Western Front even harder to penetrate. Pictured, barbed-wire over a French trench. (National Library of France)
COMMUNICATION: The scope and complexity of modern warfare meant that reliable communication with the front lines to coordinate offensive and defensive operations was more important than ever — and required some sometimes ingenious solutions. Pictured, two German soldiers stand with the wire spool of a field telephone set as another talks on the headset. (National Archives)
German soldiers use a tandem cycle apparatus to generate power for a field radio. (National Archive)
A dog carries a spool of wire across a field, helping a lay a communication line. (National Archive)
Turkish soldiers near Huj in Gaza use various tools to monitor the battlefield, along with a heliograph (second from left), a communication device that sent Morse-code messages using reflected sunlight. (Library of Congress)
Pigeons were also widely used to send communications. Pictured, British soldiers carry messenger pigeons on wicker baskets. (National Library of Scotland)
British soldiers attach a message to a carrier pigeon in a trench on the Western front, 1917. (National Library of France)
A British soldier reads a communication carried by a messenger dog who has just swum across a canal in France. (National Library of Scotland)
Operators with the U.S. Signal Corps work at a telephone switchboard near the front in France. These members of the Signal Corps Female Telephone Operators Unit, and were also known as “Hello Girls.” (National WWI Museum)
SURVEILLANCE: Airplanes first entered military service as a surveillance platform, helping commanders keep an eye on enemy activities when both sides were hidden in trenches and behind smoke screens. Pictured, a French SPAD reconnaissance airplane over France, 1918. (San Diego Air and Space Museum)
Tools of the Trade: An American aerial photographer with a Graflex camera, used to take pictures of enemy positions. (U.S. Army)
An American soldier trains with a Hythe MkIII gun camera at Ellington Field in Houston, Texas. The device was used to train troops to be aerial gunners; the same size and weight of the Lewis guns they would use in battle, it snapped a picture when the trigger was pulled to record accuracy for later review. (U.S. Army)
A New Perspective on War: Smoke billows from the front lines at Flanders in Belgium, 1917. (National Archives)
French troops advance on the Somme front, 1916. (NARA)
Trench lines and artillery craters etch an eerie landscape of war near Guignicourt, France, as seen in this aerial reconnaissance image.
Another view shows water filing hundreds of craters. (National WWI Museum)
A blasted barracks at Ypres. (Imperial War Museum)
Members of the 14th Photo Section, First Army, pose for a photograph with the tools of the aerial reconnaissance trade. (Army Air Forces)
Armies on both sides used balloons to lift observers into the air to monitor enemy movements. The first use of balloon-borne observers on a battle dates back the American Civil War. Pictured, a German balloon at Equancourt, France, 1916.
A mobile acoustic locator manned by American troops funneled distant sounds down to headphones worn by the operators to allow them to monitor enemy activity. In the age before radar, such devices were vital in detecting enemy aircraft. (National Archive)
A pigeon carries a camera equipped with a timer to capture images over the battlefield, an experiment tested by the German army. (Deutsches Bundesarchiv)
A British observation post hidden underneath a simulated free. (State Library of New South Wales)
DECEPTION: In the era before radar and the wider use of aerial reconnaissance, navies on both sides of the conflict experimented with camouflage to guard their ships from enemy eyes. The striking dazzle camouflage — seen here on the USS Nebraska — was designed to frustrate enemy attempts to gauge the ship’s range, course, and speed — especially from the perspective of a submarine periscope.
The American transport ship USS Pocahontas was converted from a German passenger liner Prinzess Irene. (San Diego Air and Space Museum)
The British aircraft carrier HMS Argus. Commissioned too late in the war to see any combat, the converted ocean liner could carry up to 18 aircraft. (National WWI Museum)
A dazzle-painted troop ship docked at Outer Harbor in South Australia. (State Library of South Australia)
The transport ship Leviathan departs Hoboken, N.J. (U.S. Army Signal Corps)
The submarine tender USS Fulton at sea off the South Carolina Navy Yard. (U.S. Navy)
The American submarine USS K-2 off Pensacola, Fla. (U.S. Navy)
MoDo's Poison Pen
Sep. 2, 2014
If President Obama seems to be tiring of the duties of his office, one of his chief supporters in the mainstream media seems just as tired of defending him. In her New York Times column this year, liberal lion Maureen Dowd has moved from chiding POTUS’s policies to outright mockery. Here are some highlights.
“The professor in the Oval Office has spurned a crucial teachable moment. He dispatched Eric Holder to Ferguson, and deputized Al Sharpton, detaching himself at the very moment when he could have helped move the country forward on an issue close to his heart. It’s another perverse reflection of his ambivalent relationship to power.” (Aug. 26)
“Obama has muzzled himself on race and made Sharpton his chosen instrument — two men joined in pragmatism at a moment when idealism is needed. We can’t expect the president to do everything. But we can expect him to do something.” (Aug. 26)
“Now we are engaged in a great civil divide in Ferguson, which does not even have a golf course, and that’s why I had a “logistical” issue with going there. We are testing whether that community, or any community so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure when the nation’s leader wants nothing more than to sink a birdie putt.” (Aug. 23)
“We’re stuck in the rough, going to war all over again in Iraq and maybe striking Syria, too. Every time Chuck says ISIL is “beyond anything we’ve ever seen,” I sprout seven more gray hairs. But my cool golf caps cover them. If only I could just play through the rest of my presidency.” (Aug. 23)
“We have to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting place for my presidency, if I keep swinging from behind. Yet it is altogether fitting and proper that I should get to play as much golf as I want.” (Aug. 23)
“Just when Americans thought they could stop trying to figure out the difference between Sunnis and Shiites, we’re in a new war in Iraq with some bad “folks,” as the president might say, whose name we’re still fuzzy on.” (Aug. 9)
“When our whippetlike president travels on Air Force One from staged photo-op to staged photo-op and then to coinciding fund-raiser to coinciding fund-raiser, encased by the White House travel behemoth and press centipede, that’s kind of the opposite of breaking loose.” (July 15)
“The White House is still trying to cast Barack Obama as a regular guy, playing pool and drinking beer (even though he only took a few sips) in Denver with Gov. John Hickenlooper of Colorado. This, when the one thing we know, and that Obama wants us to know, is that he’s no regular guy.” (July 15)
“The president’s odysseys are meant to illustrate that he’s still relevant. But do they actually underscore irrelevance by conveying his view that if Republicans in Congress are going to keep blocking him, he may as well go fishin’?” (July 15)
“Both President Obama and Hillary have recently referred to leadership as a relay race. And if a fatigued and fed-up Obama looks ready to pass the baton early, the ravenous and relentless Clintons look ready to grab it — and maybe give him a few whacks over the head with it.” (May 3)
“You simply proclaim what you believe as though you know it to be absolutely true, hoping we recognize the truth of it, and, if we don’t, then we’ve disappointed you again.” (April 29)
“It doesn’t feel like leadership. It doesn’t feel like you’re in command of your world. How can we accept these reduced expectations and truculent passivity from the man who offered himself up as the moral beacon of the world, even before he was elected?” (April 29)
“Once you liked to have the stage to yourself, Mr. President, to have the aura of the lone man in the arena, not sharing the spotlight with others.But now when captured alone in a picture, you seem disconnected and adrift.” (April 29)
Cartoon of the Day
Sep. 1, 2014
Happy Labor Day, by Michael Ramirez (September 1, 2014)
Going Solo, by Michael Ramirez (August 29, 2014)
Burger King Moves to Canada, by Henry Payne (August 28, 2014)
Regional Threat, by Michael Ramirez August 27, 2014)
Ferguson, by Michael Ramirez August 26, 2014)
My Thoughts Are with You, by Michael Ramirez August 25, 2014)
Investigating Abuse, by Henry Payne (August 22, 2014)
JV . . . by Michael Ramirez August 21, 2014)
Urgent Matters, by Michael Ramirez August 20, 2014)
Sectarian Tensions, by Henry Payne (August 19, 2014)
Between Iraq and a Hard Place, by Michael Ramirez (August 18, 2014)
Mind if I Play Through? by Michael Ramirez (August 15, 2014)
Fun • ny, by Henry Payne (August 14, 2014)
Tax Inversion, by Michael Ramirez (August 13, 2014)
Mission Iraq, by Henry Payne (August 12, 2014)
Trampled Under Foot, by Michael Ramirez (August 11, 2014)
Friendly Fire, by Michael Ramirez (August 8, 2014)
WHUAC, by Henry Payne (August 7, 2014)
Kerry, 1943, by Henry Payne (August 6, 2014)
What Cold War? by Michael Ramirez (August 5, 2014)
Regime Change, by Michael Ramirez (August 4, 2014)
Good News, by Michael Ramirez (August 1, 2014)
Incompetent, by Michael Ramirez (July 31, 2014)
Little Dutch Boy, by Michael Ramirez (July 30, 2014)
Perch, by Henry Payne (July 29, 2014)
Human Shields, by Michael Ramirez (July 28, 2014)
Putin’s Reset, by Michael Ramirez (July 25, 2014)
Presidents During a Crisis, by Michael Ramirez (July 24, 2014)
Wide Open, by Michael Ramirez (July 23, 2014)
Transparent, by Michael Ramirez (July 22, 2014)
Out, by Henry Payne (July 21, 2014)
Why? by Michael Ramirez (July 18, 2014)
LeBron, by Henry Payne (July 17, 2014)
Ha-Mas, by Michael Ramirez (July 16, 2014)
The Pawn, by Michael Ramirez (July 15, 2014)
Tear Down This Wall, by Michael Ramirez (July 14, 2014)
Obama’s Katrina, by Michael Ramirez (July 11, 2014)
Before and After, by Michael Ramirez (July 9, 2014)
I Don’t Know Why They’re Flooding the Borders, by Michael Ramirez (July 8, 2014)
Equal Justice, by Henry Payne (July 7, 2014)
The Times, July 4, 1776, by Henry Payne (July 4, 2014)
Happy Birthday, America, by Michael Ramirez (July 3, 2014)
Help Center, by Michael Ramirez (July 2, 2014)
5-4, by Henry Payne (July 1, 2014)
Rip Van Media, by Michael Ramirez (June 30, 2014)
The Piñata, by Michael Ramirez (June 27, 2014)
The Plan, by Michael Ramirez (June 26, 2014)
Red . . . by Henry Payne (June 24, 2014)
Iran to the Rescue, by Michael Ramirez (June 23, 2014)
White House to the Rescue, by Michael Ramirez (June 20, 2014)
Gap, by Henry Payne (June 19, 2014)
Baghdad Bobama, by Michael Ramirez (June 18, 2014)
Missing, by Michael Ramirez (June 17, 2014)
Dead Broke, by Michael Ramirez (June 14, 2014)
Clinton Problems, by Michael Ramirez (June 13, 2014)
To Faithfully Execute . . . by Michael Ramirez (June 12, 2014)
Broke, by Michael Ramirez (June 11, 2014)
Talking Bergdahl, by Michael Ramirez (June 10, 2014)
Lemon, by Henry Payne (June 9, 2014)
The Imperial President, by Michael Ramirez (June 6, 2014)
Cutting Carbon, by Henry Payne (June 5, 2014)
The Obama Emporium, by Michael Ramirez (June 4, 2014)
After You, by Michael Ramirez (June 3, 2014)
It Was the Weather, by Michael Ramirez (June 2, 2014)
The West Point Address, by Michael Ramirez (May 30, 2014)
First Read About It in the Newspaper, by Michael Ramirez (May 29, 2014)
General Motors Theater, by Henry Payne (May 27, 2014)
Freedom, by Henry Payne (May 26, 2014)
Hope . . . by Henry Payne (May 24, 2014)
Fallen Soldiers, by Michael Ramirez (May 23, 2014)
Outraged? by Lisa Benson (May 22, 2014)
Obamacare, Brought to You by . . . by Henry Payne (May 21, 2014)
Now You Know How We Feel, by Michael Ramirez (May 20, 2014)
#You Think? by Michael Ramirez (May 18, 2014)
#BringBack . . . by Michael Ramirez (May 16, 2014)
Gospel Reading, by Michael Ramirez (May 15, 2014)
Today’s Lecture, by Henry Payne (May 14, 2014)
Truth, by Michael Ramirez (May 13, 2014)
Clinton Celebrity Gala, by Henry Payne (May 12, 2014)
Segregation, by Michael Ramirez (May 10, 2014)
Weather, by Michael Ramirez (May 9, 2014)
Under the Rug, by Henry Payne (May 7, 2014)
What Kind of Country? by Henry Payne (August 7, 2014)
Photoshop of the Day
Sep. 1, 2014
Electric Vehicle Charging Station by (September 1, 2014)
The Great Escape, by (August 29, 2014)
Press Secretary, by (August 28, 2014)
Chain of Custody, by (August 27, 2014)
Cheshire Embrace, by (August 26, 2014)
A Push, by (August 25, 2014)
How to Get Obama Interested, by (August 22, 2014)
Fish Eats Fish, by (August 21, 2014)
Ghosts, by (August 20, 2014)
Social Justice, by (August 19, 2014)
In-Person Meetings, by (August 18, 2014)
Iraq Strategy, by (August 15, 2014)
They Can Wait, by (August 14, 2014)
Don’t Tug on Superman’s Cape, by (August 13, 2014)
Emerald Gaza, by (August 11, 2014)
Bicycle, by (August 8, 2014)
The Voter Fish, by (August 7, 2014)
Scandal Goalie, by (August 6, 2014)
Wile E. Guidance, by (August 5, 2014)
Gaza Aid, by (August 4, 2014)
Don’t Shoot, by (August 1, 2014)
Minaret Missile, by (July 31, 2014)
Punch, by (July 30, 2014)
The Offering, by (July 29, 2014)
Tunnel of Love, by (July 28, 2014)
Valley of Dearth, by (July 25, 2014)
Obama’s National Guard, by (July 24, 2014)
Iceberg, by (July 23, 2014)
Leader of the Free World, by (July 22, 2014)
The Bear Is Loose, by (July 21, 2014)
Farther Apart, by (July 18, 2014)
Secure? by (July 17, 2014)
So Many Scandals . . . by (July 16, 2014)
Mainstream, by (July 15, 2014)
Kidsnado, by (July 14, 2014)
Break Shot, by (July 11, 2014)
Pawns, by (July 10, 2014)
Ship of State, by (July 9, 2014)
Coyote, by (July 8, 2014)
Obama’s Pipeline, by (July 7, 2014)
Fingers Crossed, by (July 4, 2014)
Obama’s America, by (July 3, 2014)
Blocked Shot, by (July 2, 2014)
The Obama Legacy, by (July 1, 2014)
Tangled Web, by (June 27, 2014)
2.9, by (June 26, 2014)
Raiders, by (June 25, 2014)
Cooperation, by (June 24, 2014)
Battle Ribbons, by (June 23, 2014)
Iraq Advisors, by (June 20, 2014)
Stuff Happens, by (June 19, 2014)
Invisible Hand, by (June 18, 2014)
Ping-Pong Bomb, by (June 17, 2014)
On Advice of Council, by (June 16, 2014)
Borders, by (June 13, 2014)
Bumping the Board, by (June 12, 2014)
Obama’s World, by (June 11, 2014)
Business Regs, by (June 10, 2014)
Sock Puppet, by (June 9, 2014)
Normandy 2014, by (June 6, 2014)
Implementing Obama’s Foreign Policy, by (June 5, 2014)
Bergdahl Makes His Way Home, by (June 4, 2014)
Broken Mirror, by (June 3, 2014)
Bad Nwws, by (June 2, 2014)
‘Out Front’, by (May 30, 2014)
Captain of the Ship, by (May 29, 2014)
Train of Thought, by (May 27, 2014)
Memorial Day, 2014, by (May 26, 2014)
Tea Party, R.I.P., by (May 23, 2014)
When You Only Have a Hammer, by (May 22, 2014)
Caution, by (May 21, 2014)
Now Featuring . . . by (May 20, 2014)
Voting Protocols, by (May 19, 2014)
The Gun, The Gun, The Gun, by (May 16, 2014)
The Virtuoso, by (May 15, 2014)
Affordable Lawyer Act, by (May 14, 2014)
Workable Hashtag, by (May 13, 2014)
Foundation of Trust, by (May 12, 2014)
The Other Tea Party, by (May 9, 2014)
What We Have Here Is . . . by (May 8, 2014)
Instrument of Foreign Policy, by (May 7, 2014)
Cool Hand Carney, by (May 6, 2014)
When You Wish Upon a Star, by (May 5, 2014)
The Stripped-Down Version, by (May 2, 2014)
Pushing the Envelope, by (May 1, 2014)
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Mount Tavurvur Erupts
Aug. 30, 2014
The Mount Tavurvur volcano in Papua New Guinea erupted early Friday morning, sending a massive column of ash into the Pacific sky. Here’s a look at the latest eruption, and the life of residents in the aftermath of the massive 1994 eruption.
Mount Tavurvur, a caldera volcano located on the island of New Britain, is known for regular low-level activity, but occasionally sees more serious eruptions. Tavurvue is part of an active chain of three volcanos.
Residents in nearby towns were cautioned to remain indoors to avoid injury and damage from falling ash.
The ash cloud reached as high as 60,000 feet, a potential hazard to airlines travelling in the region.
Quantas Airlines reported it was rerouting several flights around the region due to the height of the ash cloud. (Image: Roberto Lopez via Twitter)
Anxious residents watch the progress of the eruption.
Ash can be seen falling back down from the towering column.
A brave young boy poses for a scenic portrait.
HELL ON EARTH: In 1994, Mount Tavurvur and the nearby Mount Vulcan both erupted simultaneously, destroying the town of Rabaul. The following images were taken by photographer Eric Lafforgue in and around Rabaul in the months before this week’s eruptions.
Despite the massive devastation, the 1994 eruption caused view immediate deaths, thanks to advances in prediction and early-warning systems.
The three nearby volcanos continue a low level of activity, punctuated by eruptions such as the one that occurred this week at Tavurvur.
This field of ash and lava used to be the main airport at Rabaul.
Only a handful of residents remain in Rabaul, eking out an existence among the ash and remains of the massive pyroclastic flows that inundated the area.
Many of the remaining residents make a living by harvesting megapode eggs from the ash fields. The birds bury the eggs up to six feet below the ash.
Covered in volcanic ash, a handful of locals take a break from work.
A young local smiles for the camera.
The former deputy mayor of Tabaul stands by vehicle inundated by pryroclastic flows in the 1994 eruptions.
A barge sits in Kravia Tunnels, left over from the Japanese occupation during WWII.
The remains of an American tank that fought on the island in WWII.
Meme Watch: Obama's Tan Suit
Aug. 29, 2014
President Obama didn’t have much to say in a Thursday press conference about his strategy (or lack thereof) towards Iraq and Ukraine. But the Twitterverse couldn’t stop talking, and snarking, about his new tan suit. Here’s a look at a fashion meme to get you through a very, very slow August news week.
Obama’s tan ensemble was a departure from his normal presidential black or grey, and the chief executive was barely finished with his remarks — and presumably headed back to the golf course — before Twitter users weighed in. Here’s a look.
The parody account @BarackTanSuit quickly appeared and began commenting on the fashion commentary and popularizing the hashtag #YesWeTan for all things tan. By Friday, @BarackTanSuit issued this ominous challenge: “250 RT’S AND I WILL PETITION THE WHITE HOUSE FOR OBAMA TO WEAR ME EVERYDAY OF THE YEAR!”
“OK now that the suit is off the screen can someone tell us what Obama said” (HuffPost Media, @HuffPostMedia)
“President Obama is wearing a #tansuit this afternoon. That is all.” (Mashable, @mashable)
“He got that suit at Men's White House” (David Wyllie, @journodave)
“BREAKING: Steve Harvey lends President Obama his suit in a pinch.” (Image via Nate Boateng, @nateboateng)
“The Audacity of Taupe” (Jared Keller, @jaredbkeller)
“Something just looks off about the President’s new look, that suit looks like it belongs in a used car lot!” (Image via The Edge Radio, @TheEdgeRadioUSI)
"This is my desert camo suit." (Greg McNeal, @GregoryMcNeal)
“This suit is the boldest thing Obama's done in months. “(Hunter Walker, @hunterw)
“#Obama: ‘What were you guys thinking, sending me out in a tan suit!!!!” (Image via Bakshish, @Bakshish8)
“This is what happens when Obama bypasses Congress to purchase a suit.” (Philip Klein, @philipaklein)
“Imagine if Obama wore a tan suit after Labor Day. That would be grounds for impeachment”. (Garrett Quinn, @GarrettQuinn)
“I don’t care that Obama’s suit is tan. The problem with the suit is that it’s EMPTY.” (Michelle Malkin, @michellemalkin)
“Nothing says to the int’l community that Pres. Obama means business better than a tan suit.” (Image via @mdecambre)
“A Herb Tarlek suit would have been awesome” (Image via Nathan Wurtzel, @NathanWurtzel)
“It’s be cool if Obama announced real action against ISIS. It’d be even more awesome if he took the podium in a robot suit.” (Image via T. Becket Adams, @BecketAdams)
“I have to say, this was a bold fashion choice for the president.” (Image via Michael Deppisch, @deppisch)
“And you may find yourself in a beautiful Oval Office…” (Image via Doktor Zoom, @DoktorZoom)
“#YesYouTan until Labor Day!” (Image via Jennifer Bester, @jbester)
“Look, I have nothing against tan suits” (Image via Jake Tapper, @jaketapper)
“Going for the Obama ‘tan suit’ look at work today. And no, I haven’t got a plan for the Middle East either.” (Image via colin freeman, @colinfreeman99)
“Obama vows to defeat whoever made him wear this suit.” (Josh Barro, @jbarro)
“I see no problem with the suit.” (Image via John Dingell, @john_dingell)
“@VP I got your tan body suit, buddy” (Image via Cuffe, @CuffeyMeh)
“Yes this is @mattyglesias suit please no more suit questions" (Image via darth, @darth)
“#Suitgate sparked by @BarackObama breaking grey and blue rule.” (Image via Nine News Brisbane, @9NewsBrisbane)
“Hillary talked Obama into the tan suit to deflect pantsuit haters’ energy. It’s not the 1st time she’s pulled this” (Image via mjp3md, @mjp3md)
“Wonder what Hillary Clinton thinks of #YesWeTan” (Image via Sam Clench, @SamClench)
“omg wait till you see the suit Obama’s wearing today” (Image via delrayser, @delrayser)
EA-6B Prowler
Aug. 28, 2014
As airstrikes against ISIS forces in Iraq ramp up, a venerable Navy aircraft is taking to the skies in its last scheduled deployment after more than four decades of front-line service. Here’s a look at the EA-6B Prowler.
Among the more than 1,500 sorties launched in August against targets in Iraq, most have flown by Navy F/A-18s from the aircraft carrier USS George H.W. Bush, pictured. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Third Class Brian Stephens)
Also taking part in air operations over Iraq are EA-6B Prowlers assigned to Electronic Attack Squadron VAQ-134 (the “Garudas”) aboard George H.W. Bush, pictured. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Third Class Ryan Seelbach)
The Prowler is the Navy and Marine Corps’ main electronic countermeasure aircraft, tasked with detecting and jamming enemy radar and communications. Pictured, a VAQ-134 Prowler aboard George H.W. Bush. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Third Class Brian Stephens)
While ISIS is suspected of having captured some radar-guided missiles, the Prowlers operating over Iraq are likely focused on monitoring and disrupting radio communications. Pictured, a VAQ-134 Prowler arrives on the flight deck. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Third Class Joshua Card)
War Is Boring reports that the current deployment of five Prowler aircraft with VAQ-134 aboard George H.W. Bush is the last planned by the Navy, though the Marines may fly a handful for a few more years. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Third Class Margaret Keith)
Pictured, August flight ops aboard George H.W. Bush, underway in the Persian Gulf. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Joshua Card)
A VAQ-134 Prowler leaps off the deck of George H.W. Bush. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Third Class Joshua Card)
VAQ-134 Prowlers stand on the flight deck of George H.W. Bush. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist First Class Joseph R. Vincent)
EYE IN THE SKY: Flown by the Navy and Marine Corps since 1971, the EA-6B Prowler’s mission is to locate, disrupt, and jam enemy radar and communications capabilities, providing an umbrella of protection for ground troops and aircraft. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Third Class Benjamin Crossley)
The Prowler has been a busy aircraft throughout Operation Enduring Freedom, flying from both carriers and land airbases, and still in the skies over Afghanistan. Pictured, a Prowler with Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron VMAQ-2 (the "Deathjesters") at Bagram Airfield. (Photo: Captain Raymond Geoffroy)
A Prowler with Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron VMAQ-3 (the “Moondogs”) taxis at Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar. (Photo: Senior Airman Jared Trimarchi)
The Prowler is being replaced by the EA-18G Growler, a modified F/A-18 Hornet that will combine the Prowler’s electronic warfare chops with the Hornet’s speed, agility, and firepower. Pictured, a Growler with VAQ-130 (the “Zappers”) aboard USS Harry S. Truman. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Blagoj B. Petkovski)
The number of Growlers is expected to grow even as the Navy prepares to transition its F/A-18 Hornets to the new F-35C, the carrier variant of the new Lightning II platform. Pictured, a Growler with VAQ-139 (the “Cougars”) aboard USS Carl Vinson. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Second Class George M. Bell)
Past and Future: An EA-68B with VAQ-133 (the “Wizards”) flies alongside two F/A-18s with Strike Fighter Squadron VFA-41 (the “Black Aces”) in the air above USS John C. Stennis. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Jose L. Hernandez)
ELECTRONIC WARRIOR: First introduced into the fleet in July 1971, the Northrop Grumman AE-6B Prowler is a modified version of the A-6 Intruder carrier-based attack aircraft which saw extensive service in the skies over Vietnam. Pictured, an EA-6B Prowler over Afghanistan in 2008.
Prior to the deployment of the Prowler, the Marine Corps had flown modified A-6 Intruders dubbed EA-6A “Electric Intruders” in an interim capacity in the electronic countermeasure role. Pictured, two EA-6B Prowlers with VAQ-137 (the “Rooks”) alongside USS Enterprise. (Photo: Lieutenant Commander Josh Hammond)
The upgraded EA-6B Prowler is a four-seat aircraft with a pilot and three electronic countermeasure officers. Pictured, a Prower with VAQ-134 lands aboard USS Carl Vinson. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Second Class James R. Evans)
A Marine with VMAQ-2 signals the pilot of an EA-6B prowler during Forager Fury II exercises at Andersen Air Force Base in Guam. (Photo: Lance Corporal Richard Currier)
The Prowler carries a large array of sensors and jamming systems internally and on wing-mounted pods. Pictured, a Prowler with VAQ-142 takes off during RED FLAG Alaska 14-1 exercises at Eielson Air Force Base in Alaska. (Photo: Senior Airman Peter Reft)
The Improved Capability III upgrade in 2003 refined and extended the Prowler’s electronic- warfare chops. Pictured, a Prowler with VAQ-142 (the “Gray Wolves”) lands on USS Nimitz. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Raul Moreno Jr.)
Though mostly designed to detect and disrupt, the Prowler can also prosecute targets with weapons such as the AGM-88 HARM air-to-surface missile, which homes in on enemy electronic signatures. (Photo: Northrop Grumman)
With a top airspeed above 575 miles per hour, the Prowler can get to where it needs to be quickly. (Photo: Northrop Grumman)
The Prowler’s combat range of more than 1,000-mile operating range can be greatly extended via mid-air refueling. (Photo: Northrop Grumman)
PROWLING THE SKIES: A Prowler with VAQ-140 (the “Patriots”) approaches the flight deck of USS Dwight D. Eisenhower. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Apprentice Kameren Guy)
A Prowler with VAQ-134 hurtles over USS George H.W. Bush. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Joshua Card)
A Prowler with VAQ-142 (the "Gray Wolves") manuevers during a flight demonstration over USS Nimitz. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Apprentice Kelly M. Agee)
Two VAQ-134 Prowlers fly overhead USS Carl Vinson as two F/A-18s circle in the distance. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Apprentice Andrew K. Haller)
A Prowler with VAQ-134 refuels from an F/A-18 Super Hornet with Strike Fighter Squadron VFA-22 in the skies over USS Carl Vinson. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class James R. Evans)
FLIGHT OPS: A Prowler with VAQ-133 (the “Wizards”) aboard USS John C. Stennis. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Benjamin Crossley)
A Prowler with VAQ-136 (the “Gauntlets) on the flight deck of USS George Washington. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Justin E. Yarborough)
Aviation Boatswain's Mate (Handling) Second Class Terrance Wever directs a Prowler with VAQ-133 (the “Wizards”) aboard USS John C. Stennis. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Marco Villasana)
Aviation Boatswain's Mate (Handling) Airman John Shettler directs a Prowler with VAQ-133 (the “Wizards”) aboard USS John C. Stennis. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Marco Villasana)
Air crew monitor a Prowler with VAQ-133 (the “Wizards”) on the flight deck of USS John C. Stennis. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Apprentice Ignacio D. Perez)
A Prowler with VAQ-142 (the “Gray Wolves”) prepares to launch from USS Nimitz. (Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Raul Moreno Jr.)
Aviation Boatswain's Mate (Handling) Third Class Saul Sanchez directs a Prowler with VAQ-133 (the “Wizards”) aboard USS John C. Stennis. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Second Class Kenneth Abbate)
GO FOR LAUNCH: Sailors launch a Prowler with VAQ-137 from USS Enterprise. (Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Heath Zeigler)
Lieutenant Commander Daniel Colon gives a Prowler with VAQ-142 the signal to launch on the flight deck of USS Nimitz. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Jess Lewis)
A Prowler with VAQ0131 (the “Lancers”) lifts off from USS Abraham Lincoln. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Mason D. Campbell)
A Prowler with VAQ-131 (the "Lancers") prepares to launch from USS Abraham Lincoln. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Adam Randolph)
Lieutenant Ron Rumfelt signals for the launch of a Prowler from the flight deck of USS John C. Stennis. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Second Class Kenneth Abbate)
A Prowler with VAQ140 launch from USS Dwight D. Eisenhower. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Second Class Julia A. Casper)
A Prowler with VAQ-134 launches from the flight deck of USS Carl Vinson. (Photo: Seaman Zachary David Bell)
PREPPING PROWLERS: A pair of Prowlers with VAQ-142 (the “Gray Wolves”) sit on the flight deck of USS Nimitz. (Mass Communication Specialist Third Class Chris Bartlett)
Sailors assigned to VAQ-131 (the “Lancers”) prepare an EA-6B Prowler aboard USS Abraham Lincoln. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Second Class Jonathan P. Idle)
Sailors assigned to VAQ-140 wipe down the canopy of an EA-6B prowler aboard USS Dwight D. Eisenhower. (Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Andrew Schneider)
Aviation Boatswain's Mate (Handling) Third Class Andrew Cox directs a Prowler with VAQ-133 (the “Wizards”) on the flight deck of USS John C. Stennis. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Second Class Kenneth Abbate)
SUNSET AT SEA: Sailors with VAQ-131 (the “Lancers”) perform final checks on a Prowler on the flight deck of USS Abraham Lincoln. (Photo: Mass Communication Specialist Third Class Travis K. Mendoza)
Today in History: First Lightning
Aug. 28, 2014
AUGUST 29, 1949: The Soviet Union detonates its first atomic bomb, a 20-kiloton device dubbed “First Lightning,” becoming the second nuclear nation and raising the stakes in the emerging Cold War. Revelations that espionage had fed the Soviet program, and fearing a loss of nuclear supremacy, President Truman moves ahead with the more powerful hydrogen bomb.
1911: Ishi, the last surviving member of the Yahi Indian tribe, walks out of the foothills near Mount Lassen in California and into the modern world. Ishi would spend five years living in an anthropology museum in San Francisco, where he collaborated with researchers in studying his dialect and Yahi culture. He contracted tuberculosis and died in 1916.
1997: In the fictional timeline described by Sarah Connor in the 1991 film Terminator 2: Judgment Day, the integrated defense network Skynet becomes self-aware and turns on its builders, launching a nuclear war that wipes out human civilization and pave the way for the rule of intelligent machines, some of which take on the terrifying form of the Terminator.
AUGUST 28, 1963: The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, JR. speaks to more than a quarter million civil-rights marchers from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Departing from his prepared text near the end, King’s personal appeal of hope for an end to racism propels his address to new heights, and is ever after known by the phrase “I Have a Dream.”
1968: The streets outside the Democratic National Convention in Chicago erupt in riots as police wade into some 10,000 anti-war demonstrators demanding action on the party’s political platform. Live coverage of the violence and the aggressive politics tactics used at what became known as the “Battle of Michigan Avenue” shocks many viewers nationwide, widening the political rift over the Vietnam War.
1955: Emmett Till, a young black Chicago teenager visiting relatives in Mississippi, is kidnapped and murdered by local racists who accused him of flirting with a white woman. The acquittal by an all-white jury of his alleged killers — who later boasted of their guilt in a magazine interview— galvanizes the emerging civil rights movement.
AUGUST 27, 1942: The battleship USS Iowa launches, the last lead ship of any American battleship class. Known as “The Big Stick” for her nine 16-inch Mark 7 main guns, Iowa would serve in both the Atlantic and Pacific theaters during WWII and was present at the Japanese surrender. She later in Korea, and came out of retirement in the mid-1980s to counter the growing Soviet naval threat.
1962: NASA launches Mariner 2 probe, which becomes the first man-made spacecraft to rendezvous with another planet when it passes within 22,000 miles of Venus four months later. Mariner 2 did not carry a camera because of Venus’s dense cloud cover, but it did provide the first detailed measurements of the Venutian atmosphere.
1883: A series of massive eruptions obliterate the volcanic island of Krakatoa in Indonesia, creating a sound heard up to 3,000 miles away, a pressure wave that circles the Earth seven times, and disrupting the global climate for years. Huge pyroclastic flows create massive tsunamis that kill more than 36,000 people on nearby coastlines, with some estimates of the toll far higher.
1776: British forces under General William Howe attack the Continental Army under General George Washington at the first and largest battle of the Revolutionary War. Dug in on Manhattan island, Washington found himself surrounded and outnumbered, and after several days of fighting withdrew his Army from the field, allowing the British to take control of New York.
AUGUST 25, 1944: The German garrison in Paris surrenders to allied forces after a six-day final assault, signaling the liberation of the city after five years of occupation. The next day, victorious allied troops stage a massive parade down the Champs Élysées even as German snipers still pose a threat. A long fight against German forces in eastern France still lay ahead.
1916: The National Park Service is formed within the Department of the Interior under director Stephen Mather (pictured) to conserve and manage the growing system of parks and national heritage sites. Nearly a century later the agency administers more than 450 parks and thousands of other sites and landmarks on 84 million acres of public land.
AUGUST 22, 1485: After more than two decades, the bloody War of the Roses culminates at the Battle of Bosworth Field, where Henry Tudor defeats the army of King Richard III, who is killed in the fighting. The victory propels Henry to the throne as Henry VI and establishes the Tudor dynasty that would rule England for more than a century.
1864: The Geneva Convention adopts accords providing for the non-partisan care for sick and wounded soldiers during wartime and honoring the neutrality of medical personnel. The convention also adopts a red cross on white background as the symbol that will identify medics on the battlefield, a nod to Swiss humanitarian Jean-Henri Dunant’s advocacy of the accords.
AUGUST 21, 1858: The first of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas takes place in Ottawa, Ill., as the two vie for the state’s seat in the U.S. Senate. Slavery would dominate the debates, with Douglas favoring a state’s rights approach while Lincoln supported limiting any further expansion. Lincoln loses the election, but the debates fuel his presidential bid two years later.
1863: Captain William Quantrill leads his Quantrill’s Raiders, a Confederate guerrilla force of about 450 — among them future outlaws Frank and Jesse James — in an attack on Lawrence, Kan., in revenge for the city’s support of abolition and militias who raided pro-slavery areas of Missouri. Quantrills’ men massacre more than 150 residents and set fire to 185 buildings.
1831: Nat Turner leads a revolt with seven fellow slaves on a Virginia plantation, murdering more than 60 whites over the next two days. Turner had hoped to rally others to his cause, but the rebellion was quickly put down, and in the aftermath hundreds of blacks were killed or executed; Turner was caught and hanged six weeks later. The rebellion resulted in a rash of new restrictions on slave life.
AUGUST 20, 1998: President Bill Clinton orders cruise missile strikes against Al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan and a purported chemical weapons plant in Sudan in retaliation for the bombings of two American embassies. The strikes fail to take out Osama bin Laden, and critics noted the similarity to politically-motivated misdirection portrayed in the film Wag the Dog.
1977: NASA launches the Voyager 2 space probe on a mission to explore the outer solar system. Launched before its sister ship, Voyager 2 remains the only probe to have visited all the outer gas giants: Jupiter (in 1979), Saturn (1981), Uranus (1986), and Neptune (1989). She is currently headed to the Kuiper belt and the outer boundaries of the solar system.
1794: Revolutionary War hero General “Mad” Anthony Wayne wins a decisive victory over a British-backed confederation of Indian tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers near present-day Toledo. The victory clears the way for the expansion of settlements into what would become Ohio and the upper midwest territories and puts an end to British influence in the region.
AUGUST 19, 1812: The USS Constitution, one of the original ships of war built by the American Navy to protect the fledgling nation, defeats the British frigate HMS Guerrière in a fierce battle off the coast of Nova Scotia. During the fight, 18-pound British cannonballs were seen bouncing off Constitution’s sturdy 25-inch thick oak hull, lending the ship its nickname “Old Ironsides.”
1914: Speaking before the US. Senate, President Woodrow Wilson argues that the nation must stay neutral in the conflict brewing in Europe. But after Germany violates pledges to restrict submarine warfare and entices Mexico into an alliance against the U.S., Wilson returns to Congress on April 4, 1917, to request a declaration of war on Germany; the House grants it two days later.
AUGUST 18, 1227: Mongol ruler Genghis Khan dies. Khan organized the warring tribes of the harsh Mongolian steppes into a highly disciplined and mobile army and conquered an empire that stretched across Central Asia from China to the Caspian Sea. Khan’s heirs extended their rule across China and Persia and drove as far west as the Danube River, the largest land empire in human history.
1920: Tennessee narrowly ratifies the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, giving it the two-thirds majority needed to become the law of the land. The amendment, which outlawed the restriction of voting rights by sex, was the culminaton of a campaign for women’s suffrage that began more than 70 years earlier.
1587: Virginia Dare is born at the Roanoke Colony, the first child born to English parents in the Americas. The colony was first founded in 1585 by settlers sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh, but supply problems and Indian attacks drove them back to England. A second colony was begun in 1587, but when governor John White returned with supplies three years later, everyone had vanished.
AUGUST 15, 1969: The Woodstock Music & Art Fair gets underway near Bethel, N.Y., drawing more than 400,000 young people to a three-day gathering that would transform from a concert to become, for good and bad, a defining moment for the Sixties counterculture. More than 30 top acts perform at the event, where free love and copious drug use overcome rainy and poor planning.
1979: Francis Ford Coppola’s Vietnam film Apocalypse Now opens in U.S. theaters. Transplanting the story of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness from Africa to Southeast Asia, Coppola’s violent and vivid anti-war war film combined documentary detail with a mythic dreamscape of soldiers slowly going mad in the primordial jungle. As Coppola told critics: “It’s not about Vietnam. It is Vietnam.”
1914: After a decade of construction in the unforgiving jungles and mountains, the Panama Canal opens its massive system of locks to commercial traffic, inaugurating a new route from the Atlantic to the Pacific that would redefine international shipping. Handling just 1,000 ships in its first year, a century later annual traffic tops 14,000.
AUGUST 14, 1784: Russian fur trader Grigory Shelikhov founds the first permanent Russian settlement in Alaska. The operations of the Russian American Company would later range as far south as modern-day California, but after the Crimean War bankrupted Russia, they went looking for a buyer, and in 1867 the purchase of Alaska— dubbed “Seward’s Folly” — was closed for $7.2 million.
1997: Militia-movement sympathizer Timothy McVeigh is sentenced to death for his role in the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. The massive explosion killed 167 people and injured more than 600, and remains the worst act of domestic terrorism in U.S. history. McVeigh was executed on June 11, 2001.
1980: Dockworkers seize the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk, Poland, to demand the right to unionize after the Communist government announces new austerity measures. Among the strikers was labor leader Lech Walesa, who galvanized the workers into a broader labor movement known as Solidarity and a decade later would be elected Poland’s first non-Communist post-war president.
1945: President Harry S. Truman announces the unconditional surrender of the empire of Japan, bringing an end to the Second World War. The next day, Japanese citizens would hear the voice of Emperor Hirohito for the first time as he announced the end of the war. The formal surrender would took place on September 2 aboard USS Missouri (pictured).
AUGUST 13, 1899: Horror-film maestro Alfred Hitchcock is born in London’s East End, growing up amid talk of the then-recent killings by Jack the Ripper. Hitchcock began his storied movie career in England during the silent era before moving to Hollywood in 1939, where he created such scream-cinema masterpieces as Psycho, Rear Window, and Vertigo.
1942: Walt Disney’s classic animated feature film Bambi debuts in theaters. A high-point of the animator’s lush hand-drawn tradition, the film was filled with numerous magical animal characters that enchanted young and old audiences. Though aimed at children, the film did not shy away from portraying the tragic death of Bambi’s mother.
1934: The comic strip Li’l Abner debuts, chronicling the lives of a fictional clan of hillbillies living in the Appalachian town of Dogpatch, Kentucky. Al Capp’s creation used broad caricatures of impoverished Southern society and slang-heavy dialogue to satirize American life and politics. The strip ran for 43 years and gave birth to the Sadie Hawkins Day dance tradition.
AUGUST 12, 1961: East Germany begins construction of what it calls the “Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart,” better known as the Berlin Wall. The barbed-wire and cinderblock barrier was officially meant to keep out Western influence but in reality was an attempt to stem the massive tide of defections. Steadily enlarged in the following years, the wall became a hated symbol of Communist oppression.
2000: Two catastrophic explosions inside the Russian nuclear missile submarine Kursk send the massive boat to the bottom of the Barents Sea with 118 crewmen on board. Russian naval authorities are slow to locate the wreck and begin rescue operations, resulting in unprecedented public rebukes. A later investigation determines the entire crew were dead within eight hours.
1981: Business-computing titan IBM introduces the IBM PC, which will push mainstream acceptance of computer use to new heights and create an industry standard that will dominate the market for more than two decades. The PC’s success proves a kingmaker for Microsoft, which supplied the operating system, and a setback for Apple Computer, which had dominated the industry’s early years.
1944: Navy Lieutenant Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. — pictured at right with younger brother John Kennedy in 1942 — is killed in the skies over England. Kennedy’s mission was to fly a bomber carrying ten tons of explosives partway to its target in France before arming the weapons and bailing out, with the aircraft continuing via remote control. But the detonator ignited prematurely, destroying his aircraft.
AUGUST 11, 1984: During a sound check prior to his weekly radio address, President Ronald Reagan jokes: “My fellow Americans, I'm pleased to tell you today that I've signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever. We begin bombing in five minutes.” The comment causes consternation among Reagan’s critics and grist for the Soviet propaganda mill.
1965: The arrest of a young black man in Los Angeles turns violent, sparking a quickly escalating battle between mostly black residents and mostly white police later dubbed the Watts Riots. Over six days of widespread violence and looting, 34 people are killed and more than 1,000 injured as massive fires tear through whole city blocks, causing some $40 million in property damage.
AUGUST 8, 1974: In a televised address to the nation Richard Nixon announces he will resign the office of president. Facing three articles of impeachment in the House, Nixon had just two days earlier been forced to release White House audio tapes that implicated him in obstruction of justice in the Watergate investigation. The next day he departed Washington for California.
1863: A month after the disastrous defeat at the Battle of Gettysburg — where nearly a third of the Southern Army had been lost — Confederate General Robert E. Lee sends a letter of resignation to President Jefferson Davis. Lee questioned his own leadership skills and admitted to a profound fatigue after two years of war. But Davis would refuse, and Lee would stay in command for two more years.
AUGUST 7, 1782: General George Washington creates the Badge of Military Merit to honor the heroism of soldiers fighting in his Continental Army, though he would only present the decoration to three soldiers during the Revolutionary War. The badge’s embroidered heart design would later influence its official successor, the Purple Heart, which bears Washington’s profile on its face.
1964: Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution granting President Lyndon Johnson wide-ranging power to combat communist aggression in Southeast Asia. Johnson received near-unanimous support for the resolution and quickly began prosecuting the war in Vietnam, but later revelations cast doubt on the facts surrounding the incident that precipitated it.
1959: Explorer 6 transmits the first photographic image of the Earth taken from orbit, inaugurating a new era in satellite observation and reconnaissance. The spacecraft’s photocell scanner snapped the crude image during a relatively short operational life in orbit and took nearly 40 minutes to transmit it down to scientists at Cape Canaveral.
AUGUST 6, 1945: The B-29 bomber Enola Gay drops the first atomic bomb on an enemy target, incinerating the port city of Hiroshima, Japan, at 8:15 a.m local time. The “Little Boy” device detonates 1,900 feet over the ground with an explosive force of 16 kilotons, killing between 70,000 and 80,000 people in the initial blast and igniting fires across a more than four square-mile area.
1965: President Lyndon Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act, outlawing restrictions on voter access to any local, state, or federal election on the basis of race and attacking a key institution of segregation, as civil-rights icons Dr. Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks look on. Voting turnout in black communities rises significantly in the following years.
1890: Convicted murderer William Kemmler becomes the first person executed by electrocution when the sentence is carried out at Auburn prison in New York. Electrocution was meant to be a humane alternative to hanging, the dominant form of capital punishment at that time, but the grisly duration of Kemmler’s death proved the means was far from ideal.
AUGUST 5, 1962: Actress Marilyn Monroe is found dead at her home in Los Angeles in a tragic end to a storybook career that saw her become one of Hollywood’s brightest lights. First noticed in 1950’s The Asphalt Jungle, Monroe quickly rose to superstardom with roles in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes and Some Like It Hot, and was linked romantically with President John Kennedy.
1981: President Ronald Reagan begins laying off air-traffic controllers two days after some 13,000 had gone on strike over working conditions. The action slowed air traffic for months, but the FAA quickly began hiring new workers and on October 22 controllers’ union, PATCO, was decertified.
1861: The first federal income tax is instituted to help pay for the men and materials needed to fight the Civil War, with the Revenue Act mandating a 3% charge on nearly any income over $800. Congress would repeal the tax in 1871, but in 1909 the 16th Amendment established the basis of the federal income-tax system that survives to this day.
AUGUST 4, 1944: Ann Frank and her family are discovered in the secret Amsterdam hiding place where they had evaded the Nazi occupation for two years. Anne and her sister Margot were later sent to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they both died in March 1945. Frank’s story would gain worldwide attention after the posthumous publication of the diary she kept while in hiding.
1987: The Federal Communication Commission rescinds the “Fairness Doctrine” that had required radio and television stations using public airwaves to devote time to public-interest topics and allot balanced time to opposing views. But the perceived need for diverse viewpoints was increasingly being met by proliferating cable channels. One result of the rescission was the rise of talk radio.
AUGUST 1, 1988: Rush Limbaugh debuts his daily radio broadcast to a nationwide audience, quickly attracting a large segment of listeners — later dubbed “Dittoheads” — who flock to his conservative political commentary and analysis. As his influence on political debates grew, Limbaugh would find himself attacked by major politicians including President Bill Clinton.
1981: The basic cable channel MTV Music Television begins broadcasting from New York, with its first music-video “Video Killed the Radio Star” by The Buggles. MTV quickly changed the promotion of popular music and by extension the music industry itself with its popular video programming, though critics would charge it favored visuals over musical quality.
1790: The federal government conducts the first nationwide census of the United States as mandated by the Constitution, finding a population of 3.9 million living in the country’s sixteen states, districts, and territories — a figure both President Washington and Secretary of State Jefferson disputed as too low. The census resulted in the increase of the House of Representatives from 69 seats to 105.
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