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APRIL 1, 1945: The Battle of Okinawa begins as Allied forces launch the largest amphibious landing of the entire Pacific campaign. The fighting on the doorstep of the Japanese main islands is among the most brutal of the entire war; with Allied troops clashing with tens of thousands of dug-in defenders and the skies filled with kamikaze planes, the battle is dubbed the “Typhoon of Steel.” The island falls after 82 days of fighting and more than 12,000 Americans killed.