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USAF's 65th Aggressor Squadron

Though the Air Force will retain two operational Aggressor squadrons, the 65th AGRS is the only one that flies the F-15 Eagle; the other units fly mainly F-16 Falcons. Pictured, two 65th AGRS F-15s over the Nellis range. (Photo: Master Sergeant Scott Reed)
Uploaded: Sep. 19, 2014

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Middle East Journal
Sep. 19, 2014
http://www.nationalreview.com/slideshows/388379
http://natl.re/1uLrFU5
National Review contributor Jillian Kay Melchior is traveling in the Middle East reporting on current events including the refugee crisis in Iraq. Here’s a look at images of her travels posted at her Instagram account @jilliankaym. Pictured, Melchior at the Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.
“Two Peshmerga troops at a base in Kurdish Iraq”
“Kurdish troops at the military base. (Don't worry, guys-- despite the heavy equipment, we were at a well-fortified location away from the front line, and I'm keeping safe.)”
“An ISIS mortar, post-U.S. airstrike, rests at Kurdish base. "You did this! Thanks!" one Peshmerga soldier jokes after learning I am American.”
“A kid carrying a Kurdish flag decorated the wall of a school in Makhmour”
“A man and his son stand in Makhmour, a town capture by ISIS, then reclaimed by Kurdish forces covered by U.S. air strikes. Today, about half the resident have returned.”
“This man slept through ISIS's siege of his city, awakening to find it occupied. He talked his way out of trouble, uneasily prayed at the mosque with the militants, then escaped during he Kurdish counter-attack that reclaimed the city. He was a crazy character, calling me "little sister!" in broken English and "La Mujer" in broken, random Spanish…”“An ISIS mortar, post-U.S. airstrike, rests at Kurdish base. "You did this! Thanks!" one Peshmerga soldier jokes after learning I am American.”
“Spires to the sun mark the Yazidi holy site in Lalesh”
“Another Yazidi sun spire in Lalesh.”
“Inside the Yazidi temple in Lalesh, worshipped tie knots in colorful silk as they make wishes. Others untie the knots later, which they say they believe releases them to heaven.”
“Two men sit in the courtyard of Lalesh, the most holy site for Yazidis. I think they're the rough equivalent of monks, but I could be wrong.”
“Some families that escaped ISIS have taken refuge in unfinished buildings with no running water”
“Displaced Iraqi Christians nap in a room of a church on Ankawa.”
“Two displaced Iraqi women”
“A Yazidi family that escaped after 8 days trapped on Mount Sinjar by ISIS. The husband has a tattoo of a heart with his wife's name written inside.”
“An Iraqi Christian man poses with his sketches of Christ, which decorate the doorframe of a church in Erbil. Refugees camp nearby.”
“Children displaced by ISIS”
“This little Yazidi girl, Claudia, 4, fled ISIS barefoot with her family, spending 8 days trapped on Mount Sinjar. You can't see it well in this photo, but her toenails are shattered and missing. She was silent during my visit, but her dad, pictured in the previous photo, says she sometimes asks whether ISIS is coming back to kill them all.”
“I spent some time this afternoon talking to this family of Iraqi Christians. The oldest sister just wants health and security for her children, including the one pictured. The younger sister wants to be a lawyer but says there are no opportunities for her in Iraq. The brother bemoaned the loss of his barbershop back home.”
“A woman described the difficulty of running from ISIS with her elderly mother-in-law, pictured, in tow.”
“Elderly Iraqi refugee women pray inside a church in Ankawa”
“A church yard in Ankawa holds tents for Christians who fled ISIS”
“Erbil, City Center”
“The citadel of Arbil, which is reportedly the oldest continuously inhabited town in the world. Its earliest historical mention dates to 2300 BC.”
“Taskim Square, #Istanbul”
“Me at the Blue Mosque #Istanbul”
“Blue Mosque, #Istanbul”
“The Hagia Sophia, #Istanbul”
“Inside the Hagia Sophia, #Istanbul”
“Men in Istanbul playing backgammon near some sweet graffiti”
“One last piece of #Istanbul graffiti”
“A Cuban cigar, mint tea and a reporter's notebook stuffed with good content — not a bad way to end an evening.”
California's King Fire
Sep. 19, 2014
http://www.nationalreview.com/slideshows/388481
http://natl.re/1wOS3jb
Firefighters in Northern California are battling to get control over a fast-moving forest fire that has quickly grown into the second largest conflagration of the 2014 fire season. Here’s a look at the primordial landscape of the King Fire.
Overnight on Wednesday the fire grew from 27,930 acres to nearly 80,000 acres, prompting California governor Jerry Brown to declare a state of emergency in El Dorado County. As of Thursday fire authorities report the blaze was only 5% contained.
Overnight on Wednesday the fire grew from 27,930 acres to nearly 80,000 acres, prompting California governor Jerry Brown to declare a state of emergency in El Dorado County.
The King Fire is burning through an area that has been untouched by major forest fires for two decades, which has has created a dense layer of combustible material to fuel the fire.
Some 3,000 people have been evacuated, and authorities were notifying agencies as far away as Lake Tahoe in Nevada to prepare plans for possible evacuations.
By Thursday more than 4,000 firefighters from numerous state and federal agencies, including area correctional facilities, had been assigned to battle the blaze.
The assault has been joined by numerous aircraft that by mid-week had already dropped 210,000 gallons of fire retardant. Pictured, a DC-10 drops red Foscheck fire retardant over the steep terrain.
A spokesman for the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection tells the Los Angeles Times that the battle against the King Fire is “setting a world record” for use of retardant drops. Pictured, an air tanker drops fire retardant over Pollock Pines.
A helicopter descends to a lake in Pollock Pines to take in water.
The helicopter hovers over the lake to take in thousands of gallons of water. These helicoopters can draw water from natural lakes or land in buiilt-up areas to be loaded by regular firefighting equipment.
The helicopter drops its water over the high forest canopy.
Firefighters set backfires near Fresh Pond to attempt to gain control of the speed and direction of the King Fire.
Firefighters from an area correctional facility monitor a backfire set to try and contain the spread near along Highway 50.
A weary firefighter takes a break along Highway 50, sections of which have been closed due to the encroaching flames.
Smoke rises into the sky above Fresh Pond, Calif.
Firefighters navigate a surreal nighttime fire-lit landscape.
Firefighters record the progress of their work on cel-phone cameras.
Meme Watch: "War" of Words
Sep. 19, 2014
http://www.nationalreview.com/slideshows/388407
http://natl.re/1qiiq8F
“WAR” OF WORDS: President Obama’s speech on ISIS did not impress many on either side of the political aisle, least of all the right-leaning commentariat that quickly took him to task for his shaky definitions and empty strategy. Here’s a sampling of some post-speech snark from social media.
First a constitutional scholar, now a professor of religious studies. (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
If you can't say something nice, don't say anything at all. If you can't say something intelligent... (Image via Facebook/HeidiHarrisShow)
A lesson from the master. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
War can wait, right now we need to dig into that pesky dictionary. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
"Standing up" to terror. (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
War on women? (Image via Facebook/DomTheConservative)
Good times, good times... (Image via Facebook/LiberalLogic101)
We could all use a stiff drink. (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
As Rumsfeld might say, it's a "known known." (Image via Facebook/ThePatriotFederation)
Obama knows all about the "I-word." (Image via Facebook/ThePatriotFederation)
Dropping the K-Hammer. (Image via Facebook/KRLA870)
It's like it was right there in front of your eyes all along. (Image via Facebook/ThePatriotFederation)
Up is down, right is left, black is white (sorry, that sounded racist...) (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
An Obama press conference: The opiate of the masses. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
The spin room on Air Force One. (Image via Facebook/ThePatriotFederation)
The White House instruction manual. (Image via AllTheRightSnark.org)
POTUS researches his ISIS speech. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
Pity more of us couldn't slap some sense into Washington during the last election. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
Meet MSNBC's new political analyst. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
Hey, white horses are racist! (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
Strutting his stuff. (Image via Facebook/BreitbartOneSilencedMillionsAwakened)
A degrading foreign policy. (Image via iOWNTHEWORLD.com)
Watch out ISIS: He's going to attack you with WORDS. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
Being the leader of the free world distracts from his REAL responsibilities. (Image via AlltheRightSnark.org)
He'll start bombing as soon as he figures out what "kinetic action" is. (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
A strongly worded statement. (Image via AllTheRightSnark.org)
Talk softly and carry a really good sand wedge. (Image via Facebook/KRLA870)
Remember when Democrats stood up to evil? We read it in a history book somewhere. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
Obama's status of forces. (Image: GOPTheDailyDose.com)
Here or there, he's always stuck in a sand trap. (Image: GOPTheDailyDose.com)
It's what ISIS would call a "voter de-registration drive." (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
Rewriting history. (Image via AlltheRightSnark.org)
Meanwhile, at the State Department JV Squad tryouts... (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
That's what scandals are for. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
Someone finally notices the emperor has no clothes. (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
Enemy of the people? (Image via Facebook/BreitbartOneSilencedMillionsAwakened)
The words (on the teleprompter) are crystal clear. (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
Hail Columbia! (Image via Facebook/OccupyThis2012)
Maybe he should have booked on Priceline. (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
Remember, do as he says, not as he does. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
Proper presidential priorities. (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
The butcher's bill is still unpaid. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
The real agenda? (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
... not to mention a lot of our children and grandchildren. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
Hey, after Jay Carney he'd be an upgrade. (Image via Facebook/OneNationUnderGodUSofA)
The loyal opposition is reliably silent. (Image via Facebook/ThePatriotFederation)
Meanwhile, in other brewing world conflicts... (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
Time for a review of foreign aid. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
Deciding you need to confront evil: Even a child could do it. (Image via Facebook/NOLAPDOGMEDIA)
Fighting fire with fire? (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
Words of wisdom. (Image: GOPTheDailyDose.com)
The right response. (Image via Facebook/Patriotslivefree)
If we're standing up to fight terror, we could at least be standing up for something. (Image via Facebook/RightWingRantsRaves)
So were a lot of people. (Image via Facebook/Liberals-taste-like-Chicken)
Signing off. (Image via Facebook/PunchingStupidpeopleintheface)
Cartoon of the Day
Sep. 19, 2014
http://www.nationalreview.com/slideshows/365949
http://natl.re/JbxjfK
The Lap Dog, by Michael Ramirez (September 19, 2014)
The ISIS Strategy, by Michael Ramirez (September 18, 2014)
Space Taxi, by Henry Payne (September 17, 2014)
ISIS, by Michael Ramirez (September 16, 2014)
Apple Watch, by Henry Payne (September 15, 2014)
A Grave Threat, by Michael Ramirez (September 12, 2014)
Treating ISIS, by Michael Ramirez (September 11, 2014)
Ray Rice Penalties, by Michael Ramirez (September 10, 2014)
Rising Sun? by Michael Ramirez (September 9, 2014)
Daily Briefing, by Michael Ramirez (September 8, 2014)
iCloud, by Michael Ramirez (September 5, 2014)
Al Gore’s 2014 Prediction, by Henry Payne (September 4, 2014)
JV, by Michael Ramirez (September 3, 2014)
Happy Labor Day, by Michael Ramirez (September 1, 2014)
Going Solo, by Michael Ramirez (August 29, 2014)
Burger King Moves to Canada, by Henry Payne (August 28, 2014)
Regional Threat, by Michael Ramirez August 27, 2014)
Ferguson, by Michael Ramirez August 26, 2014)
My Thoughts Are with You, by Michael Ramirez August 25, 2014)
Investigating Abuse, by Henry Payne (August 22, 2014)
JV . . . by Michael Ramirez August 21, 2014)
Urgent Matters, by Michael Ramirez August 20, 2014)
Sectarian Tensions, by Henry Payne (August 19, 2014)
Between Iraq and a Hard Place, by Michael Ramirez (August 18, 2014)
Mind if I Play Through? by Michael Ramirez (August 15, 2014)
Fun • ny, by Henry Payne (August 14, 2014)
Tax Inversion, by Michael Ramirez (August 13, 2014)
Mission Iraq, by Henry Payne (August 12, 2014)
Trampled Under Foot, by Michael Ramirez (August 11, 2014)
Friendly Fire, by Michael Ramirez (August 8, 2014)
WHUAC, by Henry Payne (August 7, 2014)
Kerry, 1943, by Henry Payne (August 6, 2014)
What Cold War? by Michael Ramirez (August 5, 2014)
Regime Change, by Michael Ramirez (August 4, 2014)
Good News, by Michael Ramirez (August 1, 2014)
Incompetent, by Michael Ramirez (July 31, 2014)
Little Dutch Boy, by Michael Ramirez (July 30, 2014)
Perch, by Henry Payne (July 29, 2014)
Human Shields, by Michael Ramirez (July 28, 2014)
Putin’s Reset, by Michael Ramirez (July 25, 2014)
Presidents During a Crisis, by Michael Ramirez (July 24, 2014)
Wide Open, by Michael Ramirez (July 23, 2014)
Transparent, by Michael Ramirez (July 22, 2014)
Out, by Henry Payne (July 21, 2014)
Why? by Michael Ramirez (July 18, 2014)
LeBron, by Henry Payne (July 17, 2014)
Ha-Mas, by Michael Ramirez (July 16, 2014)
The Pawn, by Michael Ramirez (July 15, 2014)
Tear Down This Wall, by Michael Ramirez (July 14, 2014)
Obama’s Katrina, by Michael Ramirez (July 11, 2014)
Before and After, by Michael Ramirez (July 9, 2014)
I Don’t Know Why They’re Flooding the Borders, by Michael Ramirez (July 8, 2014)
Equal Justice, by Henry Payne (July 7, 2014)
The Times, July 4, 1776, by Henry Payne (July 4, 2014)
Happy Birthday, America, by Michael Ramirez (July 3, 2014)
Help Center, by Michael Ramirez (July 2, 2014)
5-4, by Henry Payne (July 1, 2014)
Rip Van Media, by Michael Ramirez (June 30, 2014)
The Piñata, by Michael Ramirez (June 27, 2014)
The Plan, by Michael Ramirez (June 26, 2014)
Red . . . by Henry Payne (June 24, 2014)
Iran to the Rescue, by Michael Ramirez (June 23, 2014)
White House to the Rescue, by Michael Ramirez (June 20, 2014)
Gap, by Henry Payne (June 19, 2014)
Baghdad Bobama, by Michael Ramirez (June 18, 2014)
Missing, by Michael Ramirez (June 17, 2014)
Dead Broke, by Michael Ramirez (June 14, 2014)
Clinton Problems, by Michael Ramirez (June 13, 2014)
To Faithfully Execute . . . by Michael Ramirez (June 12, 2014)
Broke, by Michael Ramirez (June 11, 2014)
Talking Bergdahl, by Michael Ramirez (June 10, 2014)
Lemon, by Henry Payne (June 9, 2014)
The Imperial President, by Michael Ramirez (June 6, 2014)
Cutting Carbon, by Henry Payne (June 5, 2014)
The Obama Emporium, by Michael Ramirez (June 4, 2014)
After You, by Michael Ramirez (June 3, 2014)
It Was the Weather, by Michael Ramirez (June 2, 2014)
The West Point Address, by Michael Ramirez (May 30, 2014)
First Read About It in the Newspaper, by Michael Ramirez (May 29, 2014)
General Motors Theater, by Henry Payne (May 27, 2014)
Freedom, by Henry Payne (May 26, 2014)
Hope . . . by Henry Payne (May 24, 2014)
Fallen Soldiers, by Michael Ramirez (May 23, 2014)
Outraged? by Lisa Benson (May 22, 2014)
Obamacare, Brought to You by . . . by Henry Payne (May 21, 2014)
Now You Know How We Feel, by Michael Ramirez (May 20, 2014)
#You Think? by Michael Ramirez (May 18, 2014)
#BringBack . . . by Michael Ramirez (May 16, 2014)
Gospel Reading, by Michael Ramirez (May 15, 2014)
Today’s Lecture, by Henry Payne (May 14, 2014)
Truth, by Michael Ramirez (May 13, 2014)
Clinton Celebrity Gala, by Henry Payne (May 12, 2014)
Segregation, by Michael Ramirez (May 10, 2014)
Weather, by Michael Ramirez (May 9, 2014)
Under the Rug, by Henry Payne (May 7, 2014)
What Kind of Country? by Henry Payne (August 7, 2014)
Photoshop of the Day
Sep. 19, 2014
http://www.nationalreview.com/slideshows/355927
http://natl.re/128lz3e
Kick the Can, by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 19, 2014)
Team Work, by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 17, 2014)
FDR Ghosts, by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 16, 2014)
Testing the Winds, by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 15, 2014)
Show of Strength, by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 12, 2014)
9-11, by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 11, 2014)
Torch of Liberty, by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 10, 2014)
The Unbearable Lightness of . . . by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 9, 2014)
Broken Window, by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 8, 2014)
Steadying the Ladder, by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 5, 2014)
Dr. Obamastein, by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 4, 2014)
Ascension, by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 3, 2014)
Electric Vehicle Charging Station by TerrellAfterMath.com (September 2, 2014)
The Great Escape, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 29, 2014)
Press Secretary, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 28, 2014)
Chain of Custody, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 27, 2014)
Cheshire Embrace, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 26, 2014)
A Push, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 25, 2014)
How to Get Obama Interested, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 22, 2014)
Fish Eats Fish, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 21, 2014)
Ghosts, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 20, 2014)
Social Justice, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 19, 2014)
In-Person Meetings, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 18, 2014)
Iraq Strategy, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 15, 2014)
They Can Wait, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 14, 2014)
Don’t Tug on Superman’s Cape, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 13, 2014)
Emerald Gaza, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 11, 2014)
Bicycle, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 8, 2014)
The Voter Fish, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 7, 2014)
Scandal Goalie, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 6, 2014)
Wile E. Guidance, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 5, 2014)
Gaza Aid, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 4, 2014)
Don’t Shoot, by TerrellAfterMath.com (August 1, 2014)
Minaret Missile, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 31, 2014)
Punch, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 30, 2014)
The Offering, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 29, 2014)
Tunnel of Love, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 28, 2014)
Valley of Dearth, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 25, 2014)
Obama’s National Guard, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 24, 2014)
Iceberg, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 23, 2014)
Leader of the Free World, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 22, 2014)
The Bear Is Loose, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 21, 2014)
Farther Apart, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 18, 2014)
Secure? by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 17, 2014)
So Many Scandals . . . by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 16, 2014)
Mainstream, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 15, 2014)
Kidsnado, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 14, 2014)
Break Shot, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 11, 2014)
Pawns, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 10, 2014)
Ship of State, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 9, 2014)
Coyote, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 8, 2014)
Obama’s Pipeline, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 7, 2014)
Fingers Crossed, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 4, 2014)
Obama’s America, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 3, 2014)
Blocked Shot, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 2, 2014)
The Obama Legacy, by TerrellAfterMath.com (July 1, 2014)
Tangled Web, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 27, 2014)
2.9, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 26, 2014)
Raiders, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 25, 2014)
Cooperation, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 24, 2014)
Battle Ribbons, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 23, 2014)
Iraq Advisors, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 20, 2014)
Stuff Happens, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 19, 2014)
Invisible Hand, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 18, 2014)
Ping-Pong Bomb, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 17, 2014)
On Advice of Council, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 16, 2014)
Borders, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 13, 2014)
Bumping the Board, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 12, 2014)
Obama’s World, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 11, 2014)
Business Regs, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 10, 2014)
Sock Puppet, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 9, 2014)
Normandy 2014, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 6, 2014)
Implementing Obama’s Foreign Policy, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 5, 2014)
Bergdahl Makes His Way Home, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 4, 2014)
Broken Mirror, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 3, 2014)
Bad Nwws, by TerrellAfterMath.com (June 2, 2014)
‘Out Front’, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 30, 2014)
Captain of the Ship, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 29, 2014)
Train of Thought, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 27, 2014)
Memorial Day, 2014, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 26, 2014)
Tea Party, R.I.P., by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 23, 2014)
When You Only Have a Hammer, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 22, 2014)
Caution, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 21, 2014)
Now Featuring . . . by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 20, 2014)
Voting Protocols, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 19, 2014)
The Gun, The Gun, The Gun, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 16, 2014)
The Virtuoso, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 15, 2014)
Affordable Lawyer Act, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 14, 2014)
Workable Hashtag, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 13, 2014)
Foundation of Trust, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 12, 2014)
The Other Tea Party, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 9, 2014)
What We Have Here Is . . . by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 8, 2014)
Instrument of Foreign Policy, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 7, 2014)
Cool Hand Carney, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 6, 2014)
When You Wish Upon a Star, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 5, 2014)
The Stripped-Down Version, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 2, 2014)
Pushing the Envelope, by TerrellAfterMath.com (May 1, 2014)
<p>NR’s Photoshop of the Day is produced daily by <a href="http://www.TerrellAfterMath.com" style="color:#FFFFFF">TerrellAfterMath.com</a>.</p>
Operation Market Garden
Sep. 18, 2014
http://www.nationalreview.com/slideshows/388265
http://natl.re/1r3dlok
September marks the 70th anniversary of Operation Market Garden in WWII, the daring Allied airborne strike into occupied Holland. Had it worked it could have hastened the end of the war in Europe, but key failures in execution turned it instead into a costly disaster. Here’s a look.
Just a few months after the D-Day landings the Allied breakout from Normandy had slowed as advancing forces neared Germany. British General Montgomery (pictured at center) saw a chance to bypass the fortifications along the Siegried and strike at the heart of Germany. (Photo: Imperial War Museum)
Market Garden would be the largest airborne operation in history, utilizing three divisions of more than 30,000 British and American paratroopers, newly organized into the First Allied Airborne Army and under British command. (National Archives)
Montgomery’s plan was divided into two parts: MARKET was the airborne assault to capture eight key bridges along a 64-mile corridor in occupied Holland near the towns of Eindhoven, Nijmegen, and Arnhem. Pictured, American airborne troopers prep for the assault. (IWM)
GARDEN would see armor and infantry of the British XXX Corps race to the captured bridges and seize control of Arnhem, then push across the Rhine into the industrial heartland of Germany. Pictured, Irish Guards Group tanks on the move. (IWM)
On September 17, 1944, 1,500 aircraft ferried more than 34,000 paratroopers with the American 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions and the British First Airborne Divisions into Holland, where Allied bombing had decimated German anti-aircraft batteries. (National Archives)
Allied aircraft would ferry 5,300 tons of equipment and 1,900 vehicles into the fight. Pictured, paratroopers descend outside Arnhem. (IWM)
The success of Montgomery’s hastily-planned campaign relied on extremely swift execution by the airborne elements to capture and hold the bridges until the main armored element could move in. (IWM)
British armored units had to get to Arnhem within two to three days to relieve the airborne units and consolidate their position or the operation would falter. Pictured, British airborne take cover at Arnhem. (IWM)
German forces pressed several advantages, including blocking the narrow ground corridors to slow the Allied advance. And in a vital intelligence failure, the entire operational plan had also been seized from an officer killed in the initial assault. Pictured, German soldiers advance on Oosterbeek. (IWM)
The airborne assault saw initial success, and even where German defenses were unexpectedly strong the units managed to capture most of their objectives, and British armor began to press forward. Pictured, British tanks cross the bridge at Nijmegen. (IWM)
But mounting logistical problems would prove disastrous, keeping the operation’s airborne and armored elements separated at key points and trapping airborne units behind enemy lines. (IWM)
Delays were compounded by fierce German counterattacks. Nine days into the operation — with XXX Corps’s tanks just a few miles from the ultimate objective at Arnhem — British commanders ordered a retreat. In some cases, forced to abandon their positions under fire, Allied troops had to fight their way out. (IWM)
Market Garden came close to succeeding, but ultimately faltered under too many separate objectives and delaying factors, compounded by unexpectedly strong German defenses. Pictured, 101st Airborne troopers inspect a crashed glider aircraft. (National Archives)
British airborne casualties numbered nearly 1,500, with another 6,500 taken prisoner. Of the 10,000 troops that had landed at Arnhem, just over 2,000 escaped to safety. XXX Corps suffered 1,400 casualties. Pictured, British paratroopers at Oosterbek, the scene of particularly intense fighting. (IWM)
On the American side, elite airborne units founds themselves slogging it out in defensive positions, sometimes cut off from relief and resupply. The 82nd Airborne suffered 1,400 casualties, while the 101st lost 2,100 killed in action or injured. (National Archives)
Holland would remain in German hands for nearly the entire war, and the Allied advance into Germany would not occur until March. Pictured, an American GI cameraman with two young children in Nijmegen. (National Archives)
FIRST ALLIED AIRBORNE ARMY : British paratrooper with the 21st Independent Parachute Company assemble at an airfield in Gloucestershire. (IWM)
British First Airborne Division troopers climb aboard a C-47 transport plane. (IWM)
U.S. 82nd Airborne Division troopers prepare to board their C-47 aircraft. (National Archives)
A glider tug hauling British First Airborne Division troopers takes from an airfield at Oxfordshire. (IWM)
American airborne troops wait for the green light to jump. (National Archives)
C-47s towing gliders head out for Holland. (National Archives)
A line of C-47 aircraft flies over the Belgian city of Gheel on the way to Holland. (IWM)
The scale of the airborne operation is visible in this overhead view of aircraft on the ground and dropping paratroopers west of Arnhem. (IWM)
A C-47 explodes on landing in Holland. (National Archives)
Headquarters troops of the FIrst Airlanding Light Regiment unload on the ground. (IWM)
Medics with the 101st Airborne unload a jeep from the nose of a glider. (National Archives)
British First Airborne Division troopers on the ground west of Arnhem. (IWM)
IN THE FIGHT: A German artillery round explodes as American 82nd Airborne paratroopers advance on Nijmegen. (National Archives)
British troopers take cover in roadside ditches during fighting in Oosterbeek. (IWM)
British troops dug in near Arnhem. (IWM)
American paratroopers on the move. (National Archives)
Members of the Dutch underground share information with 101st Airborne Division troopers. (National Archives)
Tanks with the Second Welsh Guards cross the bridge at Nijmegen. (IWM)
American tow planes carry gliders over a windmill in Eindhoven a week into the operation. (AP)
British paratroopers search for snipers in Oosterbeek. (IWM)
British First Airborne Division troopers take cover near Oosterbeek. (IWM)
American paratroopers top off their ammunition at a XXX Corps distribution point. (National Archive)
British 50th Division infantry march past a disabled German 88mm gun near the Meuse-Escaut Canal. (IWM)
British troopers on the march towards Arnhem.
American paratroopers on the march in Nijmegen. (National Archives)
Citizens of Nijmegen round up Nazi collaborators after Allied forces liberated the city. (National Archives)
Aerial view of the heavy damage to the city of Nijmegen. (National Archives)
Scottish Independence Referendum
Sep. 17, 2014
http://www.nationalreview.com/slideshows/388159
http://natl.re/XgM1IB
After a passionate debate over the issue of independence that touched on political, economic, and cultural issues, Scots on Thursday voted to stay British, turning down the independence initiative by a health 55% to 45% margin. Here’s a look at election night and the colorful campaign that preceded it.
The front pages of some of the top newspapers in Scotland and England.
A stack of "No" ballots at the Royal Highland Center in Edinburgh. With about 4.2 million registered voters, election turnout was estimated at more than 84%.
The final margin was largely than recent polls had suggested, representing a strong vote for unity in the United Kingdom. Only last week at least one poll showed a majority of Scots favored independence, a result that rallied pro-union voices in Scotland and England and ramped up a serious campaign by top politicians.
Supporters of independence light torches in George Square as the polls closed.
Optimistic "Yes" supporters in George Square.
Pro-union supports rejoice at "Better Together" campaign headquarters in Glasgow.
Scottish deputy first minister Nicola Sturgeon watches the election returns in Glasgow.
A "Better Together" pro-union supporter in Glasgow cries tears of relief.
"No" campaign supporters celebrate in Glasgow.
"No" campaign supporters catch some sleep at the "Better Together" headquarters.
Pro-independence supporters reach the end of the line in George Square, Glasgow
A "Yes" supporter is overcome with emotion in George Square.
Another "Yes" supporter in George Square in Glasgow.
THE REFERENDUM CAMPAIGN: Scotland’s historic referendum on independence from Great Britain generated a passionate debate on both sides of the border. Here’s a look at the sights as top politicians and everyday citizen engage in some very colorful campaigning.
Recent polls suggesting the pro-independence “Yes” campaign may prevail has caused a whirlwind of activity as politicians and citizens seek to influence Thursday’s referendum. A vote for Scottish independence would mean a historic break in the more than 300-year-old union, creating a range of new opportunities and problems with ramifications far beyond the British Isles.
Scottish first minister Alex Salmond — pictured lower right with the “One Opportunity” sign — has been omnipresent during the independence referendum campaign, beating the drum for the pro-independence cause across Scotland.
Salmond sports a pair of “Aye” cupcakes during a campaign stop in Kilmarnock.
Salmond makes the case for independence to the next generation of Scots at the Time Twisters indoor park in Edinburgh.
Salmond poses for a selfie at a pro-independence rally in Stirling.
Scottish and English politicians have hit the campaign trail with gusto in recent weeks, making the case for independence and for preserving the union. Pictured, British Labour Party leader Ed Miliband speaks to “vote no” supporters during an appearance in Edinburgh.
British prime minister David Cameron looks serious at a speed in Aberdeen. Cameron has been criticized for acceding to conditions in the referendum campaign that have favored the pro-independence cause.
Pro-independence Scottish deputy first minister Nicola Sturgeon eats a “Yes” cupcake with constituents in Renfrew.
British deputy prime minister Nick Clegg meets pro-unioners at a rally in Selkirk.
British shadow secretary of state for international development Jim Murphy holds a carton of eggs at an event on The Mound in Edinburg. Murphy had been pelted with eggs by independence supporters at a previous event.
London mayor Boris Johnson gives a lesson in Latin a the East London Science School in Newham. Johnson’s message reads: “London loves Scotland, don’t leave us.”
Former British prime minister Gordon Brown makes the pro-union cast at Scottish Labour campaign headquarters in Glasgow.
Former British deputy prime minister John Prescott urges Scots to vote “No” at a rally in Glasgow.
Scottish Labour Party member Kezia Dugdale stands with pro-union supporters who have questions about what independence will mean for Scotland.
COLORFUL CHARACTERS: The referendum debate touches not only practical political and economic issues but deep-seated notions of culture and national identity. As a result, passions have been high on both sides. Pictured, members of the King of Scots Robert the Bruce Society flay Scottish flags — the blue-and-white saltire and the Royal Standard — at Loch Lomond.
A member of the King of Scots Robert the Bruce Society holds a traditional Scottish claymore sword as his fellow society members wave flags at a press event in Loch Lomond.
A bagpiper provides the proper musical ambience for a rally in George Square in Glasgow.
A man wears traditional Scots dress at an event in Glasgow.
The long-running Judge Dredd comic book marks the referendum with a Scots-themed edition, where a futuristic state named Calhab is policed by Dredd’s Braveheart-themed colleague Judge Ed MacBrayne.
Run for the border: Pranksters set up a “Scottish Border Agency” checkpoint near Jedburgh.
Comedian Eddie Izzard rallies pro-Union crowds in Trafalgar Square.
A pro-independence Scot campaigns in Aberdeen.
A pro-independence voter lets it (almost) all hang out courtesy of a micro-mini kilt.
Dundee tattoo artist Andy Burns makes the two-fisted case for independence.
Fashion designer Vivian Westwood displays a “Yes” button supporting Scottish independence at a London Fashion Week event.
Do the omens portend Scottish independence? Pictures from social media show a Britain-shaped cloud and fried chicken breast that both appear to be missing the Scotland part.
An Edinburgh bakery covers all its bases with cupcakes decorated with Scottish saltire flags (left), Union jacks, and a question mark for undecideds.
A pro-union Edinburgher displays a “No” sticker on her iPhone.
A pro-independence “Scotsmannequin” looms over a rally in Glasgow.
Chris Law poses with his independence-themed fire engine at the Faslane Peace Camp.
Gone to the Dogs: A pair of canines sport Union Jack and Scottish saltire flags at the Birnham Highland Games.
SIGNS OF THE TIMES: Pro-independence Scots picnic near the border crossing at Berwick-upon-Tweed under fictional signs that advertise an “Independent Scotland” featuring “Free Tea & Cakes.”
A llama considers a “Yes” sign outside Selkirk.
A bride-to-be in Edinburgh gets caught up in the pro-independence fervor.
A protestor holds a sign challenging British prime minister David Cameron in Glasgow.
Socialist Labour Party member Nicola Sturgeon preps some children at a pro-indepdence rally in Bathgate.
Glasgow residents carry competing signs.
Pro-independence campaigners march in Glasdow.
“Yes” supporters protest perceived bias at the BBC.
A young socialist makes the case for independence outside the BBC offices in Glasgow.
Scottish Labour supporters display pro-union signs in Glasgow.
“Yes” supporters make their case outside a speech by British prime minister David Cameron in Glasgow.
“Yes” and “No” supporters jockey for position at a Better Together rally in Edinburgh.
Pro-Union youngsters display “Vote Naw” signs in Edingburgh.
Pro-independence voters carry a banner critical of BBC correspondent Nick Robinson outside the broadcaster’s offices in Glasgow.
A pro-independence sign in Selkirk defaced with pro-union graffiti.
A sign in a field outside Strathblane has been repeatedly defaced by opposing sides on the independence referendum.
A pro-union sign gets right to the point in a field near Drymen.
A cafe in England near the Scottish border warns of the imminent cultural divide.
Today in History: Unabomber Manifesto
Sep. 17, 2014
http://www.nationalreview.com/slideshows/387049
http://natl.re/1ruUaoP
SEPTEMBER 19, 1995: The New York Times and Washington post publish the so-called “Unabomber manifesto,” a lengthy 35,000-word tract written by a shadowy figure who claimed responsibility for a series of bomb attacks that had killed three people and injured 23 others over a span of 17 years. Former professor Ted Kaczynski is eventually identified as the author and arrested.
1970: The Mary Tyler Moore Show debuts on CBS. Starring Dick van Dyke Show veteran Moore, the sitcom follows the life of a spirited single woman working as a television news producer in Minneapolis. Over sevens seasons, Moore’s groundbreaking portrayal of an independent career woman garners wide critical acclaim and high ratings.
1777: British General John Burgoynes attacks Colonial General Horatio Gates at the First Battle of Saratoga. During the fighting, Brigadier General Benedict Arnold (inset) forcefully argues with Gates to send his troops in a counter-attack against the British column, a move which fails to turn the tide. Afterwards, Gates relieves Arnold as his second in command, feeding the young officer’s resentment.
SEPTEMBER 18, 1850: Congress passes the Fugitive Slave Act, a bid to lessen tensions between slave and free states that were being exacerbated by a growing number of slave escapes. The act required the arrest of escaped slaves and their return to lawful owners, and is forcefully denounced by abolitionists as a “Bloodhound Law” that implicates them in the immoral institution of slavery.
1960: Cuban dictator Fidel Castro arrives in New York City to attend the United Nations general assembly, where the following week he delivers a fiery, four-hour tirade accusing the United States of aggressive imperialism. Three months after Castro’s tumultuous junket the U.S. breaks all diplomatic relations with Cuba, a prelude to the ill-fated Bay of Pigs invasion.
1793: President George Washington lays the ceremonial cornerstone of the United States capitol building, future home of the House of Representatives and Senate. Congress moved into the north wing in 1800, but was forced to find temporary quarters after British troops burned the capitol and White House during the War of 1812; a rainstorm saved both from total destruction.
SEPTEMBER 17, 1862: General Robert E. Lee’s bold invasion of the north grinds to a halt at the Battle of Antietam in Maryland as Union and Confederate forces maul each other in the bloodiest one-day battle in American history. Union General George McClellan bends but does not break Lee’s lines, and the stalemate ends with nearly 4,000 dead and almost 20,000 more injured.
1978: Egyptian president Anwar Sadat and Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin sign the Camp David Accords, the first peace treaty between the Jewish state and an Arab neighbor. Both men would receive the Nobel Peace prize, but Egypt was expelled from the Arab league the following year, and in 1981 Sadat was assassinated by Muslim extremists in retaliation for the treaty.
1976: NASA unveils the first space shuttle, Enterprise, an important milestone in the agency’s decade-long, $10-billion program to create a reusable low-Earth orbit vehicle. Though Enterprise would never fly in space, it was the first to test the design’s ability to glide back to Earth, proving the viability of aerodynamics that had been compared to a “flying brick.”
1972: The long-running series M*A*S*H debuts on CBS. An adaptation of Robert Altman’s acclaimed 1970 counterculture film, the show follows the lives of an Army medical facility operating near the front lines in Korea. Through eleven seasons mixing drama and comedy the show amasses numerous critical accolades, and its final episode in February 1983 draws a then-record 125 million viewers.
1916: German aviator Manfred baron von Richthofen — soon to be known as the “Red Baron” — shoots down his first enemy plane over the Western front during WWI. As commander of Fighter Wing 1 — dubbed “Richthofen’s Flying Circus” for its fancifully painted aircraft — Richtofen became the first fighter ace, eventually tallying 80 victories before being killed near Amiens in 1918.
SEPTEMBER 16, 1620: The Mayflower sets sail from Plymouth, England, bearing 102 religious pilgrims and entrepreneurs to the New World where they would found the first permanent English colony in America. The ship intended to land in what was then called Virginia, but was blown north and after 66 days came ashore in Massachusetts. The Plymouth colony was established the day after Christmas.
1893: The Cherokee Strip Land Run opens some 8.1 million acres in the Oklahoma territory to settlers. One of seven separate land runs held in the region, the Cherokee run is the largest on history, attracting more than 100,000 settlers. The final run takes place in 1895, and in 1907 Oklahoma becomes the 46th state.
1810: Catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla issues the Grito de Dolores (“Cry of Dolores”) calling for an end to three centuries of Spanish colonial rule over Mexico. Hidalgo attracts thousands to a populist peasant army that tries and fails to overthrow the government; Hidalgo is later executed. In the end, it is royalists of Spanish descent who engineer Mexico’s independence in 1821.
SEPTEMBER 15, 1950: General Douglas MacArthur stages a daring amphibious landing at Inchon and turns the tide of the Korean War. MacArthur’s plan was controversial given Inchon’s uniquely difficult geography, but the landing force — spearheaded by the First Marine Division — smashes ashore and drives through stubborn enemy resistance; two weeks later they would retake Seoul.
1935: A series of edicts known as the Nuremberg Laws deprive Jews of German citizenship and any functional role in German society, and also forbid marriages between Jews and Germans. They become the cornerstone for Nazi Germany’s racial laws that will accelerate the persecution of Jews and lead eventually to the Holocaust.
1916: The tank makes its battlefield debut at Flers-Courcelette. The Franco-British operation, part of the Somme offensive, was intended to break the German lines using massed artillery and infantry, but fails to break through and bogs down in a battle of attrition. The British deploy 49 Mark I tanks, but they are plagued by mechanical problems and difficult terrain, and prove indecisive.
SEPTEMBER 12, 1974: Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie is overthrown in a military coup. Selassie had ascended to emperor of the African nation in 1930, and led the resistance to Italy’s invasion shortly before WWII. He later tried to modernize the country’s economy while solidifying his control, and helped found the Organization of African Unity. But famine and politician stagnation would doom his rule.
1959: The classic Western series Bonanza debuts on NBC, chronicling the adventures of the Cartwright family in Nevada. Starring Lorne Greene as the family patriarch caring for three sons, episodes ranged from drama to broad comedy and also touched on environmental issues. Airing for 14 seasons, it is among the longest-running series in TV history.
1954: The family television show Lassie debuts on CBS. The tale of a long-haired collie that looks after a farm family — and in particular the trouble-prone pair of young boys — the show airs for 17 seasons, one of the longest run in television history, with Campbell’s Soup along as sponsor the whole way.
1953: John Kennedy marries Jacqueline Bouvier, whom he had courted while still serving in the House of Representatives and during a whirlwind Senate campaign. Following Kennedy’s election as the 35th president, the young couple became political celebrities of the so-called “Camelot” White House.
SEPTMEBER 11, 2001: Al-Qaeda terrorists hijack four commercial airliners, flying two into the World Trade Center towers in New York City and one into the Pentagon in Washington, killing more than 3,000 Americans. A fourth plane is brought down apparently by passenger action in Pennsylvania. The attacks lead to a new era of security procedures and an overseas campaign against Islamic terrorists.
1985: Cincinnati Reds player-manager Pete Rose breaks Ty Cobb’s Major-League hit record of 4,129 in a game against the San Diego Padres, receiving a seven-minute standing ovation from a hometown crowd. “Charlie Hustle” would retire as a player the following year, but in 1989 was banned from baseball for gambling on Reds games.
1921: Silent-film star Fatty Arbuckle is arrested for the rape and murder of aspiring actress Virginia Rappe. A former star in Mack Sennett’s Keystone Cops films, the heavy-set Arbuckle protested his innocence in the Rappe case but was quickly condemned and his films boycotted. After two mistrials, a third jury’s final not-guilty verdict and apology comes too late to save his career.
1777: Advancing under a dense fog, British Generals William Howe and Charles Cornwallis lead 18,000 redcoats in a full-scale attack on General George Washington’s troops at Brandywine Creek in Pennsylvania. Outnumbered and facing encirclement, Washington orders a retreat, and Congress is forced to flee British troops as they occupy Philadelphia.
1955: The Western series Gunsmoke premieres on CBS. Adapted from the radio serial, Gunsmoke stars James Arness as Marshal Matt Dillon, chief lawman of the frontier town of Dodge City, Kan. The show runs for a half-hour for its first four years before switching to a one-hour format, amassing 635 episodes over 20 years, the longest-running primetime show in history.
1813: Captain Oliver Hazard Perry defeats a squadron of six British warships at the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812. Perry had his flagship Lawrence all but sunk beneath him, but after transferring to the Niagra he sailed directly into the British line, firing broadsides at close range. After the victory he cabled President Harrison: “We have met the enemy, and they are ours.”
1924: The infamous criminal duo Nathan Leopold (at right) and Richard Loeb — better known as Leopold & Loeb — are sentenced to life in prison for the “thrill-kill” kidnapping and murder of Bobbie Franks, avoiding execution thanks to defense attorney Clarence Darrow. The two college-educated men had tried to ransom Franks for $10,000, but were caught after his partially-buried body was discovered.
1919: Nearly a year after the end of WWI, General John J. Pershing leads a victory parade down New York City’s Fifth Avenue, with some 25,000 soldiers of the American Expeditionary Force’s First Division marched in full combat gear. A week later he led the same troops in a march in Washington.
SEPTEMBER 9, 1976: Mao Tse-tung, the Communist leader and founder of the People’s Republic of China, dies in Beijing at 82. Mao and the Communists took control of the massive nation in 1949 after a long civil war and consolidated their control through the Great Leap Forward, a failed economic initiative in 1958, and the tumultuous Cultural Revolution of the 1960s. Mao remains a revered figure.
1971: Prisoners at the overcrowded Attica Correctional Facility in Buffalo, N.Y., seize control of much of the maximum-security prison and take 39 guards and prison workers hostage. Negotiators agree to improved living conditions in the prison, but when the rioters demand amnesty and passage to another country, guards storm the facility, killing 29 inmates and 10 hostages.
1919: A large part of the Boston police force goes on strike over opposition to their attempts at unionization, and the city quickly endures a spike in robbery and rioting. As Mayor Andrew Peters works to break the strike, Massachusetts governor Calvin Coolidge sends in the state militia to restore order, and his actions help catapult him to national office on the 1920 Republican ticket.
1850: California is admitted as the 31st state two years after the territory became a magnet in the 1848 gold rush, a rush-to-quick-riches ethos that would come to shape the state’s image. Composed of former Mexican territory, the state later trades its excavation reputation for other influential industries, led by the entertainment business in Los Angeles and the high-tech sector in San Francisco.
1966: Star Trek debuts on NBC. The groundbreaking science-fiction series from creator Gene Roddenberry presents an optimistic vision of humanity’s future, exploring many classic sci-fi themes alongside episodes inspired by the Cold War. The show runs for three seasons, making major stars of William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy, and goes on to become a pop-culture institution.
1998: St. Louis Cardinals slugger Mark McGwire hits his 62nd home run, breaking Roger Maris’s long-standing single-season record and just edging out Chicago Cubs outfielder Sammy Sosa. McGwire would end the season with 70 home runs, a record that stood for three years. He later faced allegations of using performance-enhancing supplements.
1974: One month after being sworn in as his replacement, President Gerald Ford grants an unconditional pardon to former President Richard Nixon, exempting him from indictment and trial for all federal crimes that he “committed or may have committed or taken part in” in connection with the Watergate scandal. Ford signs the order during an Oval Office press conference.
1941: Advancing German and Finnish forces close the last road into Leningrad, beginning a siege that will last 872 days. More than 650,000 residents would die in 1942 alone from starvation, exposure, and German artillery; the final death toll would grow to an estimated 1.5 million. After resupply lines begin to reach the city, the Red Army breaks the siege in January 1944.
1664: Governor Peter Stuyvesant surrenders the city of New Amsterdam, part of the New Netherland colony on the southern tip of modern-day Manhattan, to an English naval squadron under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls. The city is renamed New York in honor of the Duke of York. In 1686 the city became the first to receive a royal charter.
SEPTEMBER 5, 1972: Eight terrorists with the Palestinian group Black September break into the Olympic Village in Munich, Germany, killing two Israeli athletes and taking nine others hostage. The next day five of the terrorists and all the hostages are killed during an attempted rescue operation at the Munich airport; the remaining three are later released and hunted down by Israeli Mossad agents.
1877: Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is killed at Fort Robinson, Neb., in a scuffle with a soldiers, dying just four months after his surrender to U.S. General Crook and after many years battling the federal government over its treatment of the Lakota peoples. A year earlier, Crazy Horse had led a war party to a stunning victory over General George Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
1836: Sam Houston is elected the first president of the Republic of Texas. After American settlers declared their independence from Mexico, Houston led a force of Texans against General Santa Anna in revenge for the sacking of the Alamo and forced him to relinquish the territory. He later supported annexation by the U.S. but was removed from office when he refused to join the Confederacy.
SEPTEMBER 4, 1886: The legendary Chiricahua Apache warrior Goyathlay — better known as Geronimo — surrenders after a lengthy pursuit by the U.S. Army. Geronimo had battled both Mexican and American forces for more than three decades, and his surrender was the last by a notable Indian warrior. He dies on an Oklahoma reservation in 1909.
SEPTEMBER 3, 1783: The Treaty of Paris formally ends the conflict between Great Britain and its former colonies, now recognized as the United States of America. During the negotiations Benjamin Franklin pressed to take possession of the province of Quebec and nearly succeeded, but settled instead for fishing rights off the Grand Banks.
1976: NASA’s Viking 2 probe lands in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars, six weeks after its sister-ship touched down, a double triumph for the space agency in the interim between the Apollo and space shuttle programs. Viking 2 would operate on the surface for more than four years, searching for — but never quite verifying — evidence of life on the Red Planet.
1943: The allied invasion of Italy begins with the main landing force hitting the beaches at Salerno as British General Bernard Montgomery drives north from Messina. Italian resistance quickly collapses as allied troops battle German Army forces in what would become a slow and brutal campaign up the peninsula.
SEPTEMBER 2, 1945: Japan formally surrenders onboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay, bringing a final end to the fighting in World War II. Presiding over the ceremony was General Douglas MacArthur, who was set to lead the invasion of Japan — dubbed “Operation Olympic” — before the nation capitulated after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
1944: Navy Lieutenant — and future 41st President of the United States — George H.W. Bush completes a bombing mission over the Pacific island of Chichijima after his Grumman Avenger is hit by antiaircraft fire. Bush and another crewman bail out and are later rescued by the submarine USS Finback.
1666: A small fire at the king’s baker in Pudding Lane near the London Bridge grows into the Great Fire of London, a massive conflagration that destroys a large part of the city over the next three days, including more than 13,000 homes and the original St. Paul’s Cathedral.
SEPTEMBER 1, 1985: Oceanographer Robert Ballard locates the wreck of the RMS Titanic under 13,000 feet of water 400 miles east of Newfoundland, the first time the ill-fated vessel had been seen since since it went down in 1912. Dreams of raising the mighty ship were dashed, however, when she was found to be split in two, confirming eyewitness reports from the night of the sinking.
1983: Soviet jet fighters shoot down a Korean Airlines jet that had strayed into Russian airspace, killing all 269 on board. At a session of the U.N. Security Council, U.S. ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick plays audiotapes of the fighter pilot talking with his controllers, forcing the Soviets to admit their guilt in a major Cold War showdown.
1939: Germany launches a massive invasion of Poland, the first battle in what would grow into World War II. Hitler had secured a non-aggression pact with Russia just days before the invasion, which divided Poland between the two nations. Outgunned, outnumbered, and facing the terrible new blitzkrieg war machine, Poland would surrender in just one month.
1864: General William Tecumseh Sherman’s Union army smashes through the defenses of Atlanta, seizing the city and forcing the surrender of Confederate forces. Before setting off on his pivotal March to the Sea in November, Sherman orders Atlanta’s military assets destroyed, and the resulting fire burns large swaths of the city.
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