Central to any plan to democratize Iraq are the returnees–Iraqis who have left and lived in the West, learning about what a liberal culture really is. But can the returnees really jump start the democratization process? Indeed, will the best of them actually return? Martin Kramer’s pessimistic take on this is a warning that the path to democracy in Iraq must necessarily be a slow one. Amazingly, Kanan Makiya himself, the ultimate democratizing returnee, looks like he will not be returning.