Magazine November 3, 2008, Issue

De Haut en Bas

Republican vice presidential nominee Alaska Governor Sarah Palin and Democratic vice presidential nominee Senator Joe Biden (D-DE) shake hands and smile at the end of their vice presidential debate at Washington University in St. Louis, Mo., October 2, 2008. (Larry Rubenstein/Reuters)

‘Throughout recorded time, and probably since the end of the Neolithic Age, there have been three kinds of people in the world, the High, the Middle, and the Low. . . . The aim of the High is to remain where they are. The aim of the Middle is to change places with the High. The aim of the Low . . . is to abolish all distinctions and create a society in which all men shall be equal.”

Thus, Emmanuel Goldstein in The Book, the one that Winston Smith reads while canoodling with his girlfriend in the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.

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