Shades of Black
In the October 5 issue, Kevin D. Williamson’s article “The Heart of California’s Darkness” describes the recent blackouts affecting California as “utility-imposed.”
The blackouts to which he refers were not imposed by a utility company. They were imposed by an agency called the “California Independent System Operator,” or “CAISO,” which acts as a sort of ombudsman for the state’s electrical grid. When CAISO projects or determines that energy usage could or will outstrip supply, it first asks consumers for more extreme conservation tactics and then orders utility companies to impose blackouts. It is unfortunately important to draw a
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