In the many decades since the Supreme Court’s decisions in Roe and Casey, there have been significant technological and medical advances in human embryology. In particular, rigorous investigations of fetal behavior that became technologically possible only at the end of the 20th century created an unprecedented new tool for studying fetal behavior. And by directly observing fetal behavior, these tools have given us a far better understanding of fetal consciousness and pain than was available at the time of Roe or Casey. There is now strong evidence that fetuses as early as twelve weeks exhibit conscious, intentional behavior and that …
This article appears as “Unborn Suffering” in the November 29, 2021, print edition of National Review.
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