‘It wasn’t supposed to be like this.” So begins Spoiled Rotten, Jay Cost’s new history of the Democratic party. Cost is referring to the presidency of Barack Obama, who was going to be a post-partisan, post-racial leader for the 21st century. More importantly for Democrats, Obama was also going to usher in a new era of Democratic dominance based on the changing demographics of American society.
Since the 1960s, Democrats have increasingly pinned their electoral hopes less on white working-class voters and more on an alliance of upper-middle-class professionals, minorities, young voters, and women. The election of 2008, which included Democratic victories in previously Republican states such as Virginia, North Carolina, Indiana, Florida, Nevada, and Colorado, at the time seemed to have proven the 40-year strategy correct. Amid an economic crisis, Obama was inaugurated with high approval ratings, a strongly Democratic Congress, and a Time magazine cover showing the new president as the reincarnation of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Liberals, it seemed, finally had their new New Deal.
In 2012, those dreams are a distant memory. Although no longer in a reession, the economy has been limping along with anemic growth. President Obama’s signature policy change, health-care reform, is not widely popular, and many of the initial claims about its contents and costs are proving to be untrue or exaggerated. The stimulus plan now looks more like a grab bag of political handouts than a serious economic policy.
So why did things go so wrong? Part of the problem is with President Obama himself. He has proved to be a far less adept politician than many people once believed. He routinely shows a political tin ear and has expended little of the energy required to make the wheels of government turn. The president seems oddly disengaged and even uninterested in leadership. Speeches, not policy, drive Barack Obama. On top of this, the president’s overweening narcissism gives the administration an odd, disconnected feel. The president seems to be saying by his body language that the country doesn’t deserve a president as gifted as Barack Obama.
Cost is a writer for The Weekly Standard who brings a political scientist’s keen eye to the analysis of campaigns and elections. Spoiled Rotten is part polemic, part history, and a must-read for political junkies. There are many flashes here of the political smarts and good sense that fans of his writing have come to expect.
In this book, Cost claims that the problems of the Obama administration go far beyond the failings of the president and extend to a fatal flaw within the modern Democratic party. He argues that the party has increasingly succumbed to the vice of what he terms “clientelism,” which he defines as “transforming factions of voters into loyal members of a party’s coalition by offering them special privileges.” The Democratic party breaks down the American population into discrete groups and then proceeds to win their votes with government benefits. In doing so, Cost writes, the Democrats have “become a threat to the American republic itself.” Instead of working for the public interest, “the Democrats are the party of, by, and for the politically privileged few, at the expense of everybody else.”
Readers of the book will be treated to a lengthy tour of Democratic-party history, from Andrew Jackson to Obama, although most of the book focuses on the post–New Deal period. In his detailed and persuasive recounting of political history, Cost shows how Democrats continually sought to expand the powers of the federal government and create programs they believed would both solve social problems and win the allegiance of voters. They broke down the American public into discrete groups and tried to make those groups “clients” of the New Deal coalition.
Discussing the post-1960s period, Cost takes us into the era of the “New Politics,” where increasingly the most pressing issues became social and cultural rather than economic. He ably shows how Democrats added new “clients” to their coalition: African Americans, abortion-rights supporters, environmentalists, and gays.
In our own time, “clientelism” is really another term for “crony capitalism,” and therefore the book is firmly rooted in the Age of Obama. From energy policy to health care to the stimulus, special interests have certainly had a strong hand in the shaping of policy under this administration. Attacks on cronyism have become one of the most potent Republican criticisms of the Obama administration.