Education

LA High School Teacher Hangs ‘F*** the Police’ Poster in Classroom

Parents and community members attend a Loudoun County School Board meeting which included a discussion about Critical Race Theory, in Ashburn, Va., June 22, 2021. (Evelyn Hockstein/Reuters)

Over the last year, teachers and administrators nationwide have weaponized K-12 education, injecting progressive politics into classrooms, and indoctrinating students with novel social justice dogma, including theories that call for racialized curriculums and reverse discrimination to achieve racial equity.

Mainstream media outlets and left-wing commentators have accused conservatives of demonizing critical race theory, and turning an obscure academic theory into a rightwing “bogeyman.” But there sure are a lot of examples of it turning up in schools across the country, from big city Democratic strongholds to suburban districts in red America. The following are summaries of just a small number of the fights that have erupted in the last year.

LA High School Teacher Hangs ‘F*** the Police’ Poster in Classroom

A Los Angeles high school teacher recently hung a slate of inflammatory wall art in his classroom.

The teacher hung posters disparaging the police and comparing American explorers to the Ku Klux Klan, as well as flags representing Black Lives Matter and the transgender-rights movement, among other politically charged displays, according to photos obtained by Parents Defending Education.

While these items were featured in plain view, the American flag was strewn over a piece of furniture and cast into a corner in the room’s periphery. One poster depicted the incendiary phrase “F*** the police” as well as the abbreviation “ACAB” standing for “All Cops Are B**tards.” The main quote on the poster claims policing is designed to support white supremacy and therefore should be abolished.

“Policing is a violent, anti-black, settler institution that originated as slave patrols. Their primary mandate is to protect property and to militarily enforce white supremacist capitalism. They are doing their jobs as they are trained and paid to do. You can’t fix what isn’t broken- that’s why we fight for police and prison abolition,” it reads.

Another poster features a photo of Christopher Columbus with an “X” over the face with the words “F*** Amerikkka. This Is Native Land.” The words “settler colonialism,” “genocide,” “slavery,” “imperialism,” war on drugs,” “Jim Crow,” and “prison labor,” sit adjacent to the explorer’s picture.

After learning of the decorations, a parent with a student enrolled at Alexander Hamilton High School reached out to Parents Defending Education, a non-profit that works to advance transparency in public schools. He slammed what he called the school’s “disgusting brainwashing of students with taxpayer dollars.”

After Parents Defending Education escalated the concern, the school district forwarded the inquiry to those officials responsible for taking such complaints, the organization noted.

A district spokesperson published a response later that day defending teachers’ freedom to showcase materials of their choosing while adding that overtly political decorations will be flagged and removed accordingly. This latter statement was qualified, however, with another implying that the parent may have overreacted in deeming the posters “political” statements.

“Any displays that are determined to be overtly and objectively political or otherwise run afoul of our policies of inclusion and respectful treatment of others will be taken down and will be handled administratively. Nevertheless, not every subjective belief that any one display is ‘political’ can be accommodated in a district as large and diverse as L.A. Unified,” the spokesperson said.

Missouri Superintendent Cancels Advanced Middle School Courses over ‘Equity Issues’

To resolve “equity issues” purportedly plaguing the Francis Howell School District, Superintendent Dr. Nathan Hoven will be canceling all advanced middle school classes.

Advanced classes, designated as “Challenge” courses, have been eliminated from the school curricula to “reduce achievement gaps” as well as “opportunity gaps for underrepresented groups,” according to documents Francis Howell Families (FHF), an education PAC, provided to Heartland News.

“After many discussions, the decision was made to eliminate Challenge courses at the middle school level,” David Brothers, Director of Curriculum and Assessment for FHSD, wrote in an email to FHSD teachers obtained by the Midwest-based publication. “Starting in the fall of 2021, middle schools in Francis Howell will no longer offer Challenge Math 6, Pre-AP ELA 6 and Pre-AP US History 8. Pre-AP ELA 7 will be eliminated during the 2022 – 2023 school year. Pre-AP ELA 8 will be eliminated during the 2023 – 2024 school year.”

Once the Challenge classes have been scrapped, the school district intends to gradually merge the material from the advanced classes with the lower caliber courses that most students are enrolled in, Director of Media Relations for FHF Todd Wakeland told Heartland News.

After case studies of former students in advanced classes revealed that they excelled and performed beyond average students in their post-graduate careers and professional lives, FHSD looked inward to find a solution in the classroom. Seeing that minority students were less represented in the lower level courses, the district prescribed advanced class cancellation to rectify the disparity.

Instead of maintaining the different course classifications that recognize the diversity of aptitudes and skill sets among the student body, the district aims to register every child in the same classes. As a result, some students may face an intensity of instruction they are unprepared for while others will be inhibited from realizing their full academic potential.

Hoven defended the decision to nix advanced courses amidst criticism from some parents who say students won’t be offered instruction that aligns with their abilities.

“Many school districts have shown that middle school challenge courses create equity issues, and our Academic Team was planning to remove them going forward,” Hoven wrote in a letter to the Francis Howell school board obtained by Heartland News.

Like many school districts across the country falling victim to the political impulses of critical race theory, Francis Howell School District’s class cancellation proposal came in the familiar lexicon of “diversity, equity, and inclusion.” To implement these three missions, the Missouri school district, like others before it, hired a consultant in September 2020 with credentials in social justice work to provide training and curriculum auditing. According to Heartland News, Dr. LaGarrett King has openly endorsed the teachings of critical race theory, progressive ideas stemming from Robin DiAngelo’s book White Fragility, the New York Times’ 1619 Project.

Minnesota Principals Claim ‘Organized Whiteness’ of PTAs and Unions Ensure ‘Domination’

A group of 162 principals and assistant principals in Minnesota signed a statement suggesting that educators get into “good trouble” by “de-centering whiteness” and “dismantling practices that reinforce white academic superiority.”

The statement by Good Trouble Principals, first obtained by Parents Defending Education, asks educators to “get into good trouble” by “understanding that traditional organized whiteness ensures domination through forms like PTAs and Unions.” It also suggests that “white academic superiority” is reinforced by “bias in testing and the labeling, tracking and clustering that reflect an Americanized version of a caste system in our schools.”

Lastly, the statement suggests “reconstructing ‘school’ upon our full in-person returns where business-as-usual, like schedules and staffing, are open to drastic changes,” as well as “speaking truth to power.”

Princeton Offering ‘#Black Lives Matter’ Class Taught By CRT Advocate

Princeton University is offering a “#BlackLivesMatter” course this fall, where students can learn about the “historical roots and growth” of the “social movement” from a professor with a “commitment” to critical race theory. 

The class, first reported by The College Fix, includes readings from former Black Panther member Angela Davis, a two-time vice-presidential candidate of the Communist Party who once made the FBI’s Most Wanted List.

The course description says the class “seeks to document the forms of dispossession that Black Americans face, and offers a critical examination of the prison industrial complex, police brutality, urban poverty, and white supremacy in the US.”

It says the Black Lives Matter movement and the course are “committed to resisting, unveiling, and undoing histories of state sanctioned violence against Black and Brown bodies.”

The course will be taught by professor Hanna Garth, who has described herself as a person who is “broadly interested in the ways in which people struggle to overcome structural violence.”

“All of my research, teaching, and mentoring is designed around my commitment to feminist methodologies and critical race theory,” Garth writes on her personal website.

She has previously taught courses including “Race and Racisms,” “Postcolonial and Decolonial Theory,” and “Theories of Social Justice.”

Fairfax County Schools Sent Second Graders a Video Vilifying Police: ‘I Feel Safe When There Are No Police’

Fairfax County Public Schools (FCPS) sent second-graders a “summer learning guide” in July which included a Youtube video titled “Woke Kindergarten” that vilified the police.

Centered around the importance of “feeling safe,” the video, which was obtained by Parents Defending Education, presents a slideshow of photos featuring groups of young African Americans, some of whom are holding Black Lives Matter signs.

“We deserve to feel safe in our homes… I feel safe when there are no police. And it’s no one’s job to tell me how I feel. But it’s everyone’s job to make sure that people who are being treated unfairly……feel safe too,” a narrator says.

The “suggested texts” section of the summer learning guide also recommends students listen to “Good Trouble by Ki,” which instructs students on the merits of civil disobedience.

The narrator of another video, intended for seven-year-olds, tells students, “sometimes it’s good to get into trouble.” The video also presents a sequence of photos depicting social justice demonstrations, some from the modern day and some taken during the Civil Rights movement of the mid-twentieth century.

In a reference to Representative John Lewis’ 2020 speech in Selma, Alabama commemorating Bloody Sunday, the video adds, “John Lewis was a freedom fighter who got in a lot of good trouble.”

“Get in good trouble, necessary trouble, and redeem the soul of America,” Lewis declared at the 2020 event.

Over the last year, the Fairfax school system has become a notorious hotbed for many of the progressive developments taking root in public K-12 education across the country. Teachers have been instructed to use students preferred pronouns and an aggressive form of diversity, equity, and inclusion curricula has taken hold. Teachers in the district have also resisted efforts to return to in-person learning.

On the radicalized curriculum front, prominent journalist Asra Nomani criticized the district’s decision to change a rule guiding how contentious topics are discussed in the classroom.

The district leaders announced they would be “revising the existing Controversial Issues Policy and developing a new Anti-Racism, Anti-Bias Education Curriculum Policy.”

Nomani told National Review that she believes the curriculum revision is laying the foundation for progressive activists to impose “anti-racist” indoctrination and critical race theory on students.

Teachers’ Union Sues Rhode Island Mother for Over-Requesting Public Records on CRT in School District

Nicole Solas, a mother of a kindergartner in South Kingston, R.I., was sued by a powerful teachers’ union earlier this week after she requested documents surrounding the teaching of Critical Race Theory and related concepts at her daughter’s public school.

After hearing reports that teachers refused to address students as “boys” and “girls,” Solas grew concerned that progressive indoctrination was infiltrating her child’s classroom.

Denied both a tour of the elementary school and an un-redacted copy of its curriculum, Solas identified an avenue to inquire directly about the district’s social justice agenda without incurring the exorbitant cost many parents confront just to gain access to information about their children’s schooling.

In July, The Goldwater Institute filed a public records request on Solas behalf, resulting in her receiving a $74,000 bill to fulfill it, according to The Goldwater Institute.

To avoid paying thousands of dollars, Solas submitted over 160 specific public records requests, narrowing the scope to six months and requesting digital rather than hard copies, to investigate the school district’s plans to introduce critical race theory and other equity and inclusion initiatives, GoLocalProv reported.

Among the records Solas requested were documents pertaining to the influence of the AFL-CIO and NEA unions and teacher discipline and performance, as well as emails sent by various district administrators over the last six months, according to the lawsuit.

To justify the legality of filing so many records requests at once, Solas cited a provision in the state Access to Public Records Act (APRA) law, which holds that “[M]ultiple requests from any person or entity to the same public body within a thirty (30) day time period shall be considered one request,” according to her own account.

But the local branch of the National Education Association, the largest teachers’ union in the country, sued Solas alleging that she unfairly inundated the district with solicitations for documents, some of which are obscure items that do not constitute public records.

The lawsuit’s declaratory judgement reads, “The APRA system is not an alternative to the civil discovery process and is not to be used for abusive purposes or a fishing expedition – it was not intended to ’empower the press and the public with carte blanche to demand all records held by public agencies.”

The South Kingston School Committee subsequently hosted a public meeting, listing “filing lawsuit against Nicole Solas to challenge filing of over 160 APRA requests” as a major agenda item. Solas contended that such a meeting was designed to pressure her to prove the case for her requests or threaten her with litigation, in violation of the APRA law, which prohibits a government body from compelling a citizen to explain requests for public records.

Represented by a legal team from The Goldwater Institute, Solas intends to fight the NEA’s challenge in court to defend parents’ right and entitlement to obtain knowledge about their kids’ education and school system.

Two Moms Fought against Left-Wing Indoctrination. Their Kids Paid the Price

Two moms decided to push back when their kids’ elite private school, the Columbus Academy, sent home a “Justice in June” email announcing a series of new diversity and equity initiatives.

The email included a list of daily activities that read like a progressive wish list. Read about white privilege, the 1619 Project, and the case for reparations? Check. Donate money to progressive organizations such as Black Lives Matter and the Southern Poverty Law Center? Check. Advocate to reallocate city budgets by defunding the police? Check.

When the moms, Andrea Gross and Amy Gonzalez, began organizing fellow concerned parents and publicly criticizing the school’s new progressive orientation, it was their kids who paid the price; they were expelled.

READ MORE: Two Moms Fought against Left-Wing Indoctrination. Their Kids Paid the Price

Teachers, CRT Advocate Plotted to Keep Parents in the Dark About Social Justice Efforts

The curriculum-writing team in a suburban St. Louis school district plotted with a critical race theorist on how to keep parents “in the middle of Trump country” in the dark about their efforts to inject leftwing social justice advocacy into their classes.

During a webinar with members of the Francis Howell School District curriculum-writing team, the district’s equity consultant, LaGarrett J. King, told the group that “our social studies and our history curriculum is political and racist,” and “there is no such thing as neutral history.” He said the way history is taught is psychologically violent to black people, and the nations’ founding “means nothing to black people.” He asked the team members to question whether they are developing black history curriculums through the historical lens of “the oppressor.”

Teachers on the call asked King how they could reframe their classes to teach social justice concepts “in a highly conservative county … in the middle of Trump country.” King suggested they could drop controversial terms like “white privilege” while still getting the progressive message across to students. One white teacher on the call acknowledged that “Kids are way more open” to social justice teaching, “but then they go home and they tell their parents, and then their parents get upset.”

READ MORE: Missouri Teachers, CRT Advocate Plotted to Stealthily Add Social Justice Concepts to Classes

How Critical Race Theory Is Remaking a Connecticut School District

In the overwhelmingly white and moneyed town of Guildford, Connecticut, progressive parents and teachers have formed the Anti-Bias Anti-Racist Alliance(ABAR). The group intends to make “anti-racists” of each and every child who passes through the school district. ABAR says on its website, “In diving into this, you’ll find that the first critical step to raising anti-racist kids is to understand our own biases and identities, to ‘do the work’….We realize that as a predominantly white, cis-gendered community we are shaped by our privilege and limited ability to fully understand the impact of bias and racism.”

The group enjoys a powerful ally, Superintendent Paul Freeman. With him in charge, curriculum alteration is underway. At a recent social justice meeting he praised the formation and aims of ABAR, calling them “one of the brightest spots in the school year.” Freeman has a history of re-education pushes. In 2019 he had teachers create a “racial autobiography,” an accounting of the racial makeup of one’s life experiences, to illustrate the whiteness of their backgrounds. He then distributed copies of White Fragility and How to be an Anti-Racist to every teacher in the district using $6,000 taxpayer dollars to pay for the books.

Resistance to these “anti-racist” efforts is in its infancy, led by a fast-growing parent group called Truth in Education(TIE). TIE is now wrestling with the school district about having a public debate about critical race theory. The district denies they teach critical race theory in their schools and has rebuffed the debate requests.

READ MORE: From Grad School to Kindergarten: How Critical Race Theory Is Remaking a Connecticut School District

How Southlake, Texas, Won Its Battle against Critical Race Theory

In Southlake, Texas, CRT activists and a conciliatory school board attempted to take over the Carroll School District curriculum via a hushed mid-summer vote. Southlake, an affluent Republican-voting suburb of Dallas/Fort Worth, was seventy-two hours from an “anti-racist” coup that would have meant a dramatic leftward shift for the district. The District Diversity Council crafted the proposal, called the Cultural Competence Action Plan(CCAP), to create an “anti-racist” culture in the district, replete with micro-aggression guidance and speech-policing policies.

Concerned parents flooded into the board meeting and delayed the vote on the proposed bill, allowing an anti-CRT coalition to form in the following weeks and secure seats on the school board. With historic turnout, there is confidence that the next election will raise their hold on the district 5-2, a bulwark against another attempt to pass the proposal. To many outside observers, this was the first resounding defeat of a CRT effort and can provide a playbook for parents elsewhere.

 READ MORE: How Southlake, Texas, Won Its Battle against Critical Race Theory

Head of Elite NYC Private School: ‘We’re Demonizing White People for Being Born’

The head of an elite New York City prep school privately acknowledged that the school’s anti-racism training is “demonizing white people for being born,” according to leaked audio from a conversation he had with an embattled teacher in March.

George Davison, the head of Grace Church School in Manhattan, told math teacher Paul Rossi that the school uses language that makes white students “feel less than, for nothing that they are personally responsible for,” and that “one of the things that’s going on a little too much” is the “attempt to link anybody who’s white to the perpetuation of white supremacy.”

“I also have grave doubts about some of the doctrinaire stuff that gets spouted at us, in the name of anti-racism,” Davison told Rossi, according to the recordings.

Rossi was relieved of his duties at Grace for calling out the school for its antiracist orthodoxy. During their conversation, Davison said he agreed with Rossi that “there has been a demonization that we need to get our hands around.”

READ MORE: Private School Head Admits ‘Anti-Racist’ Curriculum Is ‘Demonizing White People for Being Born’

Maryland Middle-Schoolers Taught that MAGA is White Supremacy

Thomas Pyle Middle School students in Montgomery County, Maryland, were taught that former-President Donald Trump’s slogan “Make America Great Again” is an example of “covert white supremacy,” ranking only slightly less troubling than racial slurs, hate crimes and lynching, according to documents obtained by Judicial Watch, a conservative watchdog group.

Other examples of alleged white supremacy include: the belief that “we’re just one human family,” the one-time American ideal of colorblindness, celebrating Columbus Day, and the belief that through initiative and drive people can pull themselves up by their bootstraps to improve their lives, also known as “bootstrap theory.”

Students in the school’s social justice class were taught that white privilege means being favored by school authorities, having a positive relationship with police, “soaking in media blatantly biased toward my race,” and “living ignorant of the dire state of racism today.”

Montogomery County Public Schools, the state’s largest school district, recently spent over $454,000 for an “anti-racist system audit,” according to Judicial Watch.

READ MORE: Maryland’s Largest School System Spent $454K in Taxpayer Money on ‘Anti-Racist System Audit’

Wealthy Washington D.C. Suburb is Ground Zero in Nation’s Culture Wars

In Loudoun County, Virginia parents fighting to reopen schools during the coronavirus pandemic joined forces with parents pushing back against leftwing political indoctrination, making the wealthy Washington D.C. suburb ground zero in the nation’s culture wars.

In early 2021, several video clips from the district’s school board meetings went viral.

There have been heated debates over the Loudoun County School District’s efforts to root out “white supremacy” and “systemic racism,” which many parents see as a blatant attempt to inject critical race theory into the schools. Through a Freedom of Information Act request, parents learned that the school district paid at least $422,000 to the Equity Collaborative, a CRT-espousing California-based consulting firm, to conduct a “systemic equity assessment.” In March, the district de-emphasized Dr. Seuss on Read Across America Day – held on Dr. Seuss’s birthday – because of “strong racial undertones” in many of his books. The district also has partnered with the leftist Southern Poverty Law Center to develop a social justice-inspired curriculum for kids as young as kindergarten.

The cultural battles in Loudoun County are broader than just fights over CRT. In May, a Christian elementary school teacher was suspended after he voiced opposition to a proposed district rule that would require faculty to acknowledge and address students by their preferred gender-identity pronouns. A judge later ordered that he be reinstated.

READ MORE: Parents Explain How Loudoun County Became Ground Zero in the Culture Wars

Maine School Committee Claims Society is ‘Built on White Supremacy’

In the wake of George Floyd’s killing at the hands of Minneapolis police last June, the equity committee in a far-away school district in Maine released a stunning letter. It was time, the committee members declared, to “dismantle the anti-Blackness all of us have internalized by living in a society built on white supremacy.”

The committee members wanted the entire Cumberland and North Yarmouth community to know that they were ready to make changes to the majority-white school district. “It is our duty,” they wrote, “to educate ourselves and dismantle the violent and oppressive structures which have kept us divided.” Black people “experience violence every single day because of our white supremacist society,” they added, and the community’s students needed to be taught that “Black Lives Matter.”

The school district has since paid over $12,000 for diversity and equity training from Community Change Inc., a non-profit that advocates to “end capitalism” and to “look at other economic models … such as socialism and anarchism.”

READ MORE: NBC Left Out Key Details on Critical Race Theory Fight at Maine School, Parent Says

San Diego Teachers Taught They ‘Spirit Murder’ Black Students

White teachers in San Diego were taught during a training session last year that they are guilty of committing “spirit murder” against their black students.

In September, the San Diego Unified School District, hosted critical race theorist Bettina Love for a presentation on “Abolitionist Teaching.” The presentation centered around Love’s book, We Want To Do More Than Survive, and addressed the concept of “spirit murder,” which Love has described as “a death that is built on racism and intended to reduce, humiliate, and destroy people of color.”

The training was led by then-superintendent Cindy Marten, who has since been tapped by President Joe Biden to serve as his deputy secretary of education. Marten urged people attending the training to “recognize our privilege and bias.”

READ MORE: Top Biden Education Official Brought Critical Race Extremist to San Diego School District

Kentucky Social Equity Course Didn’t Pass Neutrality Test

Concerned parents in a suburban Kentucky community organized in early 2021 to put the kibosh on a proposed social-equity course designed to teach about “the intersection of gender, race, class, and sexuality,” and to help students “create an action plan for future social change.”

A syllabus for the course at Highlands High School in Fort Thomas, Ky., identified two “required textbooks” – Ibram X. Kendi’s How to be an Antiracist and Robin DiAngelo’s White Fragility – which students would be asked to buy, with the hope that “these books will stay with you as a reminder of the work that we (society) need to do.”

In his book, Kendi argues in favor of race-based discrimination to achieve racial equity. DiAngelo suggests that white people should be viewed as a racist collective socialized to “fundamentally hate black people.” One of the teachers who helped develop the course has identified herself as a “dumb white girl with white privilege.”

The course was tabled because a school leader said it created “unnecessary division,” and did not pass the neutrality test.

READ MORE: Teachers See Progress, Conservative Parents See Racism. The Battle for Public Education Arrives in Red America

Rhode Island Teacher Urges Students to Testify About Legislation She Opposes

A Barrington High School teacher in Rhode Island is accused of promoting political activism in her class after she emailed students this spring, mischaracterizing an anti-critical-race-theory bill in the  legislature and urging students to testify about it with a promise of extra credit.

The teacher sent the email in late March, telling her students that bill H6070 – one of many bills in statehouses across the country aimed at stopping schools from preaching CRT-related concepts – would prohibit any discussion of race or gender in the classroom. In reality, the bill would only have barred things like teaching that any race or sex was inherently superior or that any individual is inherently racist, sexist, or oppressive – “whether consciously or unconsciously” – based only on their race or sex.

“I strongly urge you to testify on this bill tomorrow,” the teacher wrote to her students, after clearly stating her own opposition to the legislation. “As always, if you are a student in my class, you will receive 5 points on your next unit test if you decide to testify and provide me with your written testimony.”

READ MORE: Rhode Island Teacher Offered Students Extra Credit to Testify on Critical Race Theory Bill

Virginia School District Revising How Controversial Topics Addressed

In an effort to realize their “vision of educational equity,” school leaders in one Washington D.C. suburb are revising a policy that requires controversial topics be addressed impartially, objectively, and from multiple perspectives.

The effort in Fairfax, Virginia, is part of the school district’s plan to develop a new Anti-Racism, Anti-Bias Education Curriculum Policy. To develop its plan, the district has partnered with The Leadership Academy, a New York-based consulting firm that promotes “equity-focused leadership development” and “anti-racism.”

The district also has done away with testing requirements for admission to Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, one of the nation’s most prestigious public schools, because it was not diverse enough. More than 70 percent of the school’s students in the 2019-20 school year were Asian. The school board is facing at least two lawsuits alleging anti-Asian discrimination.

READ MORE: Virginia School Leaders Accused of Setting the Ground for ‘Anti-Racist’ Indoctrination

READ MORE: Thomas Jefferson High School Wants Fewer Asians

Massachusetts Students, School Staff Encouraged to Report Microaggressions

Leaders of the Wellesley Public Schools system in Massachusetts are encouraging students and staff members to snitch on one another for telling rude jokes and committing microaggressions.

Students and staff are encouraged to report incidents of discrimination “or any concerning pattern of biased behavior” to any district staff member or trusted adult, according to documents from the district’s Office of Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. Reports can be made anonymously.

According to training slides, “Telling rude jokes that mock a protected group” is an example of a “bias-based incident.” Examples of microaggressions include saying “My principal is so crazy!” asking someone “Where are you actually from?” or saying “Ohhh, you got the ‘China Virus’?!?!”

Potential discipline includes detention, suspension or “other restorative responses.”

READ MORE: Massachusetts Public School District Encourages Students to Report Peers, Teachers for ‘Bias’ Violations

Ryan Mills, Caroline Downey, Brittany Bernstein and Luther Abel contributed to this article.

Members of the National Review editorial and operational teams are included under the umbrella “NR Staff.”

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